A Case Study of Drug Abuse and Youth in Kaltungo Local Government Area of Gombe State
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The people of Kaltungo Local Government Area were said to have migrated from the far East through former Kanem Borno Empire. They settle in various places like Ngazargamu after they left Yamen. It was from Kupto they came to their present settlement with struggles of wars (tribal).
The Kaltungo people move together with tribes like Tera; Balewa; Karekare; Wasa; Kanakuru and other minor tribes. The people arrived to Tungo in the 18th century after a clash of interest they separated with his brother Billiri people and settled in present Kaltungo.
Kaltungo Local Government came into existence in 1992 from former Billiri-Kaltungo Local Government, with an area of 2,737 square kilometers and the population of 12,409 (1996 census). It has eight (8) districts and two chiefdoms and are inhabited by Tangale, Tula, Awok and Kamo others includes Fulani; hausa, Yoruba and Ibo.
The area is (hilly kilang hill) being the highest peak and valleys with good vegetation. The favorable climate and fertile land encourage good Agriculture. Both for cash crop and food crops like Guinea corn, Millet, Maize, beans, Beni-seed etc. They have various fruits, the most important been the Kanje (Murici) other includes Mango, Locust beans tree and others.
The view of the focal area of study is Kaltungo metropolis where the rate of drug abuse are very alarming. It is made of five hamlets, among them is Kalaring which is the principal area, where the name of their gathering was named (AJAKUNLE) where other youths come from all over the Local Government to purchase, and do their acts of drugs and substance abuse and takes some to their respective villages. Among the drugs are Marijuna, Burkutu, Goscolo patch solution and others.
The local government is headed by the chairman and traditionally ruled by the MAI who is equivalent to first class Emir and Deputy Chairmen Gombe State council of Chief.
Geographically the Local Government is boarded in the west by Shongom Local Government, with Waja Local government in the east, while in the North by Billiri Local Government Area.
The culture and tradition are ill pagans before the coming of the two foreign religions Christianity and Islam. Presently over 2/3 of the people are Christians while other Islam and traditionalist measured 1/3. The people have various festivities, among the most important are the Eku and Tagar which was celebrated every year in the months of August and December respectively December festival ends with traditional dances involving the whole community. The people of Kaltungo are peace loving.
The incidence of increasing of drug usage among youths including secondary students in Kaltungo local Government Area of Gombe state and to some extent primary school leaver has been in growing concern to Nigerian society and indeed the whole world. According to Sunday concord page 5 and the Nigerian newspapers first caption of 25th of February 1998 and 13th August, 2005 respectively.
It has commonly reported in Nigerian papers, that youths, adults and Business men and women, the rich and the poor are trafficking in dangerous drugs and abusing them. Drugs such as Marijuna, alcohol, heroin and cocaine are commonly sold and misused by youths who are ignorant of their health and to their future social economic and cultural status.
Various government in Nigeria and even outside countries expressed deep concern over the alarming rate of drugs abuse. What really seems to be of concern is the involvement of youth in this notorious activities.
According to Advance Learners’ Dictionary defined drug scientifically as any substance other than food, which by its chemical substance or nature affect the function of the leaving organism. Drug abuse refers to self medication or none medical use of drugs to achieve other purpose rather than healing or curing of disease. Thus any use of drug not prescribed by a physician can be termed to as drug abuse or persistent use of drug that is harmful to personal and social growth.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Kaltungo people are often re reaching and discussing the “Good olden days”. The youths are hard working, submissive and loyal as “culture was a habit”. The loyalty youth do assist their parents by working on the farm by male youths and fetching of fire wood by the female youths.
In recent years, the hard working attitude of the youths in Kaltungo Local Government area has change and currently drug use and delinquency has taken over. This study is made to trace the causes and effect of drug abuse in the area of study.
A close discussion with some school officers and teachers, Nigerian educational administrators, parents/guidance, traditional rulers, community leaders, religious leaders etc. Drug abuse among school leavers are alarming increasing since early 1980s especially amongst the youths in Kaltunga Local Government Headquarters.
Youths in Kaltungo Local Government are prone to varieties of drugs, drinking and smoking marijuana. They are also engaged in taking (Goscolo) which to death of youths. The current example of the drugs are Tramol, valium, patch solution, Bunigato to mentioned but a few.
The rate of criminal acts is on the increase such like stealing, raping and beating their parents. In spite of Government effort by citing the office of drug law enforcement agency in the area, but still no marked improvement. They do change their place of gathering named AJAKUNLE whenever they are displaced by the law enforcements. Though some of the law enforcement personnel do involves in such practice. This strengthen the youths not to fear them anymore.
The researcher wants to finds out why the incidence among the youths is increasing at alarming rate than before. However several efforts are still on the move to improve relationship between the youths and the personnel so that to achieve positive goals.
Viewing the statement of the problems the following question are raised:
i. Are there cases of drug abuse in government science secondary school Kaltungo?
ii. What makes youths get involved in drug abuse?
iii. What is the effect of drug abuse among youths?
iv. How can drug abuse be controlled among youths?
v. What is the role of parents and counselors involvement in drug abuse?
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
i. To establish the incidence of drug abuse among youths in Kaltungo Local government Area and causes of such behaviours.
ii. To find out effect of drug abuse and learning process and deliguent behaviour.
iii. To determine the level of parental involvement among youths who use drugs.
iv. To make necessary recommendations to government, educators, parents and other stakeholders.
1.4 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research findings will be of benefit to the following set of people;
i. The school administrators, government and parent, to resolve conflict that lead youth to drug abuse, through encouragement of youths to comply with their studies.
ii. Parents should be partners of progress of their youths, so that to modify their children’s behaviours to deceit from such act.
iii. Children should notes that a good student and citizen make a good leader of tomorrow.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This research will be restricted mainly in Kaltungo metropolis where it becomes the nucleus of drug abuse. The nature of the people, their habit and characters with other cultural values which lead youths to get involved in drug abuse, the researcher will distribute questionnaires randomly and also personal interview so that to achieve the goal.
1.6 DEFINITION OF KEY CONCEPTS
According to Oxford Advanced Dictionary
Delinquency: Is a bad or criminal behaviour usually of youth, people like stealing, drunkenness etc.
Drug Abuse: Refers to self medication or medical use of drug to achieve other purpose rather than healing or curing disease.
Youth: According to Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary, is the time of life when a person is young especially before the time a child becomes an adult. He had been a talented musician in his youth.
Youth Delinquency: Are mild crimes behaviours carried out by youths like shop lifting, drunkenness, sexual abuse etc.