A HISTORY OF CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA FROM 1979 – 2015
Contrary to the prevailing practice among most social scientists and other students of society (like lawyers, historians and philosophers) who claim or make a pretense at objective, values-free analysis and explanation of any social phenomenon. I openly acknowledge that all attempts to explain social reality, or any aspect of it are necessarily informed by philosophical and moral presuppositions, explicitly or implicitly made by scholars concerned.
Consequently, a historical perspective of corruption in Nigeria begins with seeing corruption as a form of anti-social behavior by an individual or social group which confers unjust or fraudulent benefits in its perpetrators, is inconsistent with the established legal norms and prevailing moral ethos of the land and is likely to subvert or diminish the capacity of the legitimate authorities to provide fully for the material and spiritual wellbeing of all members of society in a just and equitable manner. It is important to note the following;
A. Corruption was not invented by, nor is it peculiar to Nigerians. On the contrary, it is a global phenomenon with deep historical roots, although it manifests itself with significant similarities and differences in different societies, depending on the particular system of power c distribution and the legal and moral norms operating therein.
B. Corruption, like all social phenomenon, is intelligible only in its total social context: its peculiar form, dynamics and degree of social and cultural acceptability or tolerance being critically related to the dominant mode of poverty distribution power configuration; and the underpinning moral and ethical values of operation in a given society.
C. Corruption in Nigeria is a kind of social virus which is a hybrid of traits and those derived from and nurtured in the indigenous Nigerian context
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH
The Federal Republic of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. It comprises 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja is located. Nigeria is officially a democratic secular country.
Modern-day Nigeria has been the site of numerous kingdoms and tribal states for millennia. The modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, and the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures whilst practicing indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, and plunged into a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It has since alternated between democratically-elected civilian governments and military dictatorships, until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with its 2011 presidential elections being viewed as the first to be conducted reasonably freely and fairly.
Nigeria is often referred to as the “Giant of Africa”, owing to its large population and economy. With approximately 174 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has one of the largest populations of youth in the world. The country is viewed as a multinational state, as it is inhabited by over 500 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba; these ethnic groups speak over 500 different languages, and are identified with wide variety of cultures. Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Christians, who live mostly in the southern and central parts of the country, and Muslims in the northern and southwestern regions. A minority of the population practise religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to Igbo and Yoruba peoples.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The researcher have noticed vigorously, the level at which corruption has engulf the citizen and leaders of this country Nigeria, yet looking back at our colonial nation corruption is not noticed in their nation as ours ‘Nigeria’, therefore, this issues is to trace the history of this ugly manner.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research work seeks to lay down the historical background of corruption of this county Nigeria starting from 1979 to date (2015), also this research work will highlight the points at which this corruption began to emerge.
Also the research work will suggest possible means at which this corruption can be eradicated and how to maintain the new order, the era of free nation.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work is positively significant to every citizen of this country Nigeria, as it which pen down our corruption and solution to it before us. This work is also significantly important to the leaders and the government of our nation, which if implement will eradicate corruption in our country Nigeria.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work is going to cover the nation corruption history and it will only be covering a duration of 36 year starting from the 1979 to this very date (2015). This research concentrate on corruption only.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
For the course of this research work, some basic research question was formulated, for the easy assessment and understanding of this research work. Question formulated are;
1. In which of the year/era do you think that we had the best government with free o less corruption?
2. Do you think that corruption is found only among the leaders of this country?
3. In your own opinion write down a possible way that corruption can be reduce or eradicated for this nation?
4. Do you think that there is a significant relation between the economy of this country and its corruption?
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
During the course of performing/researching this project work, the researcher encountered a lot of challenges as well as opposition which ranges from financial constraints, time factor, sourcing of material etc. this factors in their own ways, slowed down the speedy progress of this work that resulted to the researcher not being able to finish the research work on time as is required
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties, is done under color of law or involves trading in influence.
Corruption: corruption is the use of powers for illegitimate private gain
Nigeria: A nation colonize by the British colonial masters which got her independence in the 1960 and became a republic in the 1963 and has three major tribe the Hausa – 21%, the Yoruba – 21% and the Igbo – 18% and others language make up the rest of the population.
CBN (1975) Annual Report and Statement of Accounts for the Years Ending December 1975, Lagos.
Dudley, B. J (1973) Instability and Political Order: Politics and Crisis in Nigeria, Ibadan, Ibadan University
Falola, T and Ihonvbre, J (1985) The Rise and Fall of Nigeria’s Second Republic: 1979 – 1984, London. Zed
Okigbo, P (1986) Sorcerers, Astrologers and Nigerian Economic Recovery, Kuru NIPSS.
Osoba, S.O (1993) “Cronyism and Sub – Version: The Case of Military Rule in Nigeria Public Lecture
delivered under the Auspices of government college Ibadan, Old Boys Association, Sunday 12,
September, 1993., (World Bank 1981) Accelerated Development in Sub – Saharan Africa: An
Agenda for Action, Washington: World Bank.