AN ASSESSMENT OF INTERPELLATION IN SELECTED HAUSA HOME VIDEO MOVIES

Abstract

The Hausa culture just like many has been infiltrated by foreign ideologies. Hausa home video movies as a veritable tool for projecting and preservation of the Hausa culture have been perceived to be promoting and depicting foreign ideologies which are at variance with the tenets of the Hausa value system. These home videos movies have effectively become a platform for Hausa filmmakers at promoting the Euro-American and Indian ideologies which influence the target audience through a process known as Interpellation. Althusser describes Interpellation as a process through which people encounter their cultural values and internalize them. It basically explains the ways in which ideas get into people‟s heads and have an effect on their lives so much so that the people believe in the ideas. Interpellation happens through ideological and repressive means. Therefore, the study will apply the theory of interpellation on a select Hausa home video movies which are fictional but mirrors reality and the society, then examine the interpellation functions of Hausa home video movies, and the likely influence of the ideologies depicted in Hausa home videos on the target audience laying credence to the fact that home videos are a powerful ideological weapon. This study will establish how the interpellation functions of Hausa home video movies undermine the essentials of Hausa value system in aspects of marriage, mannerism, morality, dressing etc. the methodology adopted will be issuing out questionnaires to sample opinion of various strata of respondents and subsequent analysis of the content and main thrust of five different Hausa home videos namely Basaja (2012), Mata da Kuɗ i (2014) Zee-Zee (2014), “Yar Mace (2014) and Mulkin Mallaka (2014).

Table of Contents Page

Title ……

Declaration …………………………………………………………… i

Certification ………………………………………………………… ii

Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………iii

Dedication…………………………………………………………………..iv

Contents……………………………………………………………………..v-viii

Abstract……………………………………………………………………..ix

Chapter One: General Introduction

1.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………. 1-2

1.2 Background of the Study………………………………………………. 2-3

1.3 Statement of the Problem………………………………………………..3

1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study…………………………………… 3-4

1.5 Research Questions ……………………………………………… 5

1.6 Significance of the Study………………………………………………..5-6

1.7 Justification of the Study……………………………………………… 6

1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study…………………………………….6

1.9 Definition of Operational Terms…………………………………… 7

1.10 Conclusion ……… ……………………………………… 7

Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature

2.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………..8

2.2 Concept of Interpellation 8-9

2.2.1 Repressive State Apparatuses…………………………………………….10

2.2.2 Ideological State Apparatuses…………………………………………….10

2.3 Interpellation in Literature…………………………………………… 11-19

2.4 The Evolution of Hausa Home Videos…………………………………19-24

2.5 Hausa Home Videos………………………………………………… 25-45

2.6 Conclusion 45-46

Chapter Three: Research Methodology and Theoretical Framework

3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………….……47

3.2 Research Design………………………………………………….……47

3.3 Sample Population of the Study……………………………………47-48

3.4 Target Population of the Study………………………….……………..48

3.5 Sample Size……………………….………………………………..48-49

3.6 Sample Technique…………………………………………………… 49

3.7 Instrument Used for Data Collection……………………………….49-50

3.8 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument 50

3.9 Administering the Questionnaire 50-51

3.10 Procedure for Data Collection 51

3.11 Method of Data Analysis………………………………..………….51-52

3.12 Limitation of the Study. ……………………………………………52-53

3.13 Criteria for Selecting the Hausa Home Video Movies used as Corpus….53

3.14 Theoretical Framework…………………………………………… 54-56

3.15 Theoretical Review…………………………………………………..57-58

3.16 Conclusion……………………………………………………………..58

Chapter Four: Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1 Introduction 59

4.2 Data Presentation 59

4.2.1Table 1: Distribution of Respondents by Gender………….………………..59

4.2.2 Table 2: Distribution of Respondents by Age Bracket……………….……60
4.2.3 Table3: Distribution of Respondents by Marital Status……………… …….60
4.2.4 Table 4: Extent of Interpellation in the film Basaja…………………….61-64
4.2.5 Synopsis of the film Basaja…………………………………………….. 64-67
4.2.6 Presentation of Data……………………………………………………….67-75

4.2.7 Analysis on the film Basaja…………………………75-83

4.2.8 Table 5:Extent of Interpellation in the film Mata Da Kuɗ i……………..83-
85
4.2.9 Synopsis of the film Mata Da Kuɗ i……………………………………… 85-
86
4.2.10 Presentation of Data………………….. 87-93
4.2.11 Analysis on the film Mata Da Kuɗ i………… 94-
101
4.2.12 Table 6: Extent of Interpellation in the film Zee-Zee……………….. 101-104
4.2.13 Synopsis of the film Zee-Zee…………………………………………104-105
4.2.14 Presentation of Data…………… 106-113
4.2.15 Analysis on the film Zee-Zee …………………………………………113-121
4.2.16 Table 7: Extent of Interpellation in the film„YarMace……………… 121-122
4.2.17 Synopsis of the film „YarMace…………………………………….. 123-124
4.2.18 Presentation of Data……………………. 124-131
4.2.19Analysis on the film „Yar Mace ……………………………………… 131-139
4.2.20 Table 8: Extent of Interpellation in the film Mukin Mallaka………..139-140
4.2.21 Synopsis of the film Mulkin Mallaka………………………………..140-141
4.2.22 Presentation of Data……………… 142-148

4.2.23Analysis on the film Mulkin Mallaka……………………………………149-155

4.2.24 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………155

Chapter Five: Conclusion

Summary, Findings and Conclusion

5.1 Introduction………156
5.2 Findings……………………………………………………………154-160
5.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………160
5.3 Recommendations ……………………………………………………..161-162

References

Appendix

Chapter One

General Introduction

1.1 Introduction

Literature is often influenced by the culture and society in which it is produced and as the imitation of life, it creates not only serious, and substantial literary pieces but also composes conventional and melodious works of art which more often is expected to influence, convince or persuade the people (Kabir, 2013). It is against this backdrop that scholars like Agyekum (2013), Chapman (1992:619), Hogins (1984), Ladyina (1976) to mention but a few have described literature from different perspectives but all have underscored the strong relationship that exists between literature and society. Literature deals with experience which may feature philosophical ideas that could be presented in terms of personal experiences which normally reflect the experience of the entire society over a certain period of time.

The term interpellation as a noun, has its root from Latin as interpellare,-atum which means to disturb by speaking. Interpellation according to the French Marxist Philosopher, Louis Althusser (1972) is the process by which ideology embodied in major social and political institutions, constitutes the nature of individual subjects‟ identities through the very process of institution and discourse of praising them in social interactions. It basically explains the ways in which ideas get into peoples‟ heads and have an effect on their lives, so much so that they believe they are their own. Interpellation is a process which people encounter their cultural values and internalise them.

Hausa home videos according to Dakata (2004) are audio visual tapes or discs relaying plays and dramas that are recorded for commercial purpose. They are purchased and viewed at home with the sole intent of acquiring the required entertainment and education where possible by the viewers. These home videos bring people into contact with their culture while they are being entertained, even though interpellation could acculturate the audience with a culture other than theirs.

Since literature mirrors the cultural and societal life of a people as opined by Ladyina (1976), a conscious effort will be made in this study to examine the processes in which people subject to various ideologies as depicted in some Hausa home video movies like Basaja(2012), Mata da Kuɗ i (2014), Zee-Zee (2014) „Yar Mace (2014) and Mulkin Mallaka (2014). Also, to establish how these foreign ideologies undermine some essentials of the Hausa value systems especially in aspects of marriage, morality, norms and values etc.

1.2 Background of the Study

This research depicts the strong relationship that exists between literature and philosophy as a discipline. According to Chapman (1992), literature in the real sense is philosophical because it does not just portray the experiences of a people over a certain period of time; it represents the mindset, perceptions, religion and cultural beliefs of a people. It is worthy of note to state that students of literature share the desire to integrate literary experience with other cultural phenomena such as historical change, philosophical concepts and social movements.

The study, therefore, examines the interpellation functions of Hausa home video movies and how it undermines the essentials of Hausa value system in aspects of marriage, norms and values, mannerisms, dressing, morals etc. Film as opined by Mohammed (2004) is designed primarily to inform, influence or inspire. And according to Krings (2004), Film is a medium which can be used to give life to the imaginative, to what could be, to the dreams (bad and good) of a given society. Therefore, one finds it expedient to apply the philosophical concept of interpellation on select Hausa home video movies. This is by examining how ideology operates in Hausa home video movies. The unconscious exploitation of the concept of interpellation by producers and scriptwriters of Hausa home videos deliberately or otherwise to get to their target audience, and also examine the effect of foreign ideologies on the target audience who view these home video movies by issuing out questionnaires to various respondents.

1.3 Statement of the Problem

Researches have been conducted on Hausa drama, home video movies inclusive but none has to the best of this research focused its attention on the interpellation functions of the Hausa home videos. This work therefore states the problem as follows:

Most Hausa home video movies since inception have been perceived to depict foreign ideologies. These foreign ideologies are at variance with the tenets of the Hausa value system. The research sets to exploit the interpellation functions of select Hausa home video movies and how they undermine the essentials of Hausa value system in aspects of marriage, norms and values, mannerisms, dressing etc. The high rate of immorality in the 21st century Hausa society may not be unconnected with the ideals which some Hausa home video movies depict.

What then is the likely fate to befall the Hausa value system if the Hausa filmmakers who should consider themselves as moral and social agents of Hausa culture continue to depict ideals that are at complete variance with that of the Hausa value system.

1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study

This research deals with the relationship between the ideologies portrayed in Hausa home video movies and its aftermath effect it has on the target audience through a process known as interpellation. Therefore, the integration of the philosophical concept of interpellation to Hausa home video movies is the focus of this study, as such has some objectives. Some of the objectives of this study are:

1) to examine the process through which ideology operates in within the context of a work of art;

2) identify the likely influence of interpellation on Hausa society and the target audience as it appears consciously or unconsciously in Hausa home video movies;

3) find explanations to some human traits in aspects of culture, philosophy and perceptions as exhibited in the society which has great influence on works of art like Hausa home video movies.

1.5 Research Questions

Hausa home video movies have enjoyed some level of attention from different literary scholars which explains why there are diverse opinions on these home videos. This research attempts to contribute its quota by examining the applicability of the theory of interpellation on the study of Hausa home videos. Therefore the research questions for this study are:

1) to what extent is the theory of interpellation applicable to the study of Hausa home videos?

2) do Hausa home videos perform the functions of informing, educating and enlightening viewers?

3) do Hausa home video movies erode the rich cultural heritage of the Hausa people as a result of interpellation?

4) to what extent do the Hausa home video movies portray foreign ideologies like that of the Euro- American, India and China-Korea?

5) what is the likely influence of foreign ideologies depicted in some Hausa home video movies on the target audience?

6) Is the Hausa home video movies an effective tool for public sensitization through interpellation?

7) is the Hausa home video movies a powerful ideological weapon that could be used to promote foreign ideals that are detrimental to the Hausa ideals?

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study hopefully will be of great benefit to a lot of readers and students of literature. Some of the importance this study and how it may benefit readers and other students include:

1) this study will highlight the relationship that exists between literature and other spheres of human activities especially philosophy.

2) the research, hopefully, would be a guide to other students that may decide to apply the philosophical concept of interpellation on other Hausa home video movies in future.

3) the study would further boost the image of one very vital aspect of Hausa literature – that is contemporary drama known as Hausa home video movies in the context of this study.

4) students of literature will benefit from this study because they will exhibit some level of acquaintance with Hausa home video movies.

5) students of philosophy will benefit in such a way that they will further realize that philosophy cuts across so many boundaries including literature.

6) the study would hopefully educate readers and other researchers on how ideology operates in every society so much so that it is portrayed in their home video movies.

1.7 Justification of the Study

To justify any research, one must state clearly the reasons that necessitated the research.

Therefore, the justification of this study is:

1) to undertake a research that attempts to test the applicability of the theory of interpellation on the study of some Hausa home video movies.

2) to evoke a consciousness amongst the Hausa populace on the role some Hausa home video movies play in influencing the culture of the people.

3) to establish that foreign ideologies depicted in Hausa home video movies have the tendency to influence the culture of the target audience through the process of interpellation.

4) to address the general notion that just as Hausa home video movies contribute to moral decadence in the society, it could also be used as a veritable tool for projection and preservation of the rich cultural heritage of the Hausa people.

5) to establish that home video movies as a powerful ideological tool could be used for the propagation of the Hausa ideals.

1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

This study applies the theory of interpellation on some select Hausa home video movies by way of content analysis. Therefore, the study limits its scope to the application of the theory on only five Hausa home video movies namely: Basaja (2012) Mata da Kuɗ i (2014), Zee-Zee (2014) „Yar Mace (2014) and Mulkin Mallaka (2014). Suffice to also state that this study does not include in its focus other variables that concern the study of Hausa home video movies like characterisation, theme, language style, setting unless they are able to present the required interpellation.

1.9) Definition of Operational Terms

a) Interpellation – a process through which ideas gets into peoples‟ minds and have an effect on their lives.

b) Ideology – The doctrine, philosophy, body of beliefs or principles belonging to an individual or group.

c) Acculturation – a process by which the culture of an isolated society changes on contact with a different one especially a more advanced society.

d) Enculturation –the process by which an individual adopts the behavioural pattern of the culture in that person is immersed.

e) Cultural synchronization – a process whereby an external culture that is welcomed and imitated by another culture which the external supersedes in an evolutionary fashion is more likely to be suitable.

1.10) Conclusion

This chapter has tried to highlight the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, the importance of the study, research methodology, research hypothesis and the scope of the study. Also, the chapter gave an insight to the bearing and direction of the study by providing an overview of the key variables of this study such as the theory of interpellation and Hausa home video movies. The chapter also brought to the fore the feasibility of applying the theory of interpellation on the study of Hausa home video movies and points out clearly the problems the research would tackle.