AN EVALUATION OF THE ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TOWARDS TEACHING AND LEARNING OF HEALTH EDUCATION
The study examined the attitude of students towards the teaching and learning of health education in selected Junior Secondary Schools in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State.
The descriptive survey design was used in this study. 120 participants selected through random sampling technique from five Junior Secondary Schools comprised the sample for the study. The descriptive statistics or frequency counts and percentages provided answers to research questions while the chi-square (X2) statistics was used for hypotheses testing. The results revealed that: Attitude of the students influenced teaching and learning of Health Education (X2cal = 38.04 0.05). Also that attitude of teachers influenced Health Education (X2cal = 43.3 0.05). While motivation influenced students behaviour towards Health Education (X2cal = 16 0.05). Also, teachers personality influenced students’ attitude (X2cal = 28.1 0.05) and teaching method influenced students attitude towards Health Education(X2cal = 26.01 0.05).
It was concluded that: the attitude of students significantly influence teaching and learning of health education in the school. Students who participate in Health Education often show non-challant attitude towards the subject. Teachers significantly influence the teaching and learning of health education in Junior Secondary Schools. Teachers show negative attitude towards teaching and learning of Health Education which influenced the attitude of students toward the subject. Attitude significantly influence the teaching and learning of health education in schools. The implications of this show that attitude counts a lot in everything human being do. Teachers do not motivate the students in order to develop their interest in learning Health Education. For instance many teachers do not use teaching materials to illustrate their teaching process and they do not have mastery of content and this makes students to lose interest in the subject. The knowledge of health education significantly influences the teaching and learning of health education in the Junior Secondary Schools. This implies that many students who learn Health Education have poor background in the subject. Finally, it was found that the teaching method of Health Education significantly influences the teaching and learning of health education in schools. Based on the conclusions reached in this study, the following recommendations were made by the researcher.
(1) Students should endeavors to have or develop more interest and zeal on the subject, health education, as it will enable them to learn the subject better and to perform well in it.
(2) Teachers should ensure that the students are well motivated so that they would learn well the health education teaching.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Health to the layman refers to not being ill, wearing a good look being physically fit. Indeed, health means the state or condition of an individual, which enables him/her to perform his/her daily activities. Oke (1996) asserted that health is the totality of the doing, considering the individuals’ ability to perform physical exercises without being easily fatigues, enduring long periods on tasks until solutions are found, having a normal organic and systematic functioning and being able to relate well with those around.
To World Health Organisation (WHO, 1998) defined Health as “a state of complete physical, mental, emotional and social well being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. Umoh (2000) defined health education as a process of teaching the child the rudiments of how to protect and improve his/her health either at school or in the home. Amaonye (1990) defined it as the importation of knowledge on how an individual should maintain a healthy living. It may appear as though in a number of ways, health teachings. The truth is that it does differ in certain crucial areas.
Although much of the content in health education is basic to complete physical, mental, social and emotional development of the child, motivation is often difficult. This is perhaps because the actively health child is largely uncaring about his health. Very often, many youths and adults who did not have the opportunity of being introduced to the essential health knowledge and favourable schools, show a rather perverse antagonism towards established facts of rate living (Anyakogu 1994).
Kayode (1997), the School health programme aims at protecting and improving the child’s health. The school personnel, especially teachers are therefore supposed to work towards the achievement of this goal. This aspiration, mandates the teachers to understand the concept of health, which is considered as good health for children? However Health Education or Health Instruction is a component of School Health Programme.
Brown (1999) claims that a sequence must be followed in planning for an instructional session. This sequence or techniques in teaching health education in the school is listed as follows:-
1. Define the objectives to be attained by the student.
2. Choose appropriate methods to ensure that students achieve learning as specified the most promising teaching strategies or procedures must be chosen.
3. Select appropriate learning experiences from the various available alternative.
4. Select appropriate materials, facilities and equipment.
5. Assign roles as defined.
6. Evaluate outcomes.
Uzomah (1998) identified many factors which affect teaching and learning of health education. These include inadequate or relevant materials, lack of equipment, inappropriate choice of methods, non-assignment or roles, non-definition of defined objectives etc. Uzomah asserted that these factors hinder the teaching and learning of health education in schools. However the ability of individuals to teach and learn Health Education requires an attitude.
Kretch and Kruch (1998) defined attitudes as an organization of motivational, emotional perceptional and cognitive process with respect to some aspects of the individuals world. In the light of this definition, Erazmus (1997) opined that attitude could be regarded as predispositions to classify sets of objects or events and to react to them with some sense of evaluation and with consistency. Attitude affects all the activities of man and his environment, and the learning of health education is not exempted in this regard.
Achuzia (1990) observed that attitude could be negative or positive and those towards health education do not learn the subject well and do not internalize the rudiments of the subject, unlike students who devote much interest and zeal on the subject or discipline. While Onyemaobi (1991) asserted that for students to develop positive attitude interest and good orientation towards anything, especially towards a particular subject such as health education, or other subjects, there must be motivational drive.
Other scholars such as Adeleke et al (1994) asserted that for students to have interest and to develop the attitude needed for the learning and academic achievement in Health Education, he/she has to have good orientation on the subject(s), be well disposed for the course through readiness and having burning desire to know and to learn or master the skills that are involved in the course of study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The observed inability of young persons to practice and maintain personal hygiene for community healthy living has raised a concern. In addition there is difficulty in the ability of the youth to learn Health Education in Schools, resulting in poor knowledge and skills of positive healthy choices concerning personal health which affect other persons within the community.
This study investigated the attitude of students towards the teaching and learning of Health Education in Secondary school and recommend possible solutions.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to examine the attitudes of students towards teaching and learning of health education in Lagos state secondary schools.
The specific objectives of the study will include
1. To find out whether attitude of students will influence the teaching and learning of health education.
2. To find out whether the attitude of teachers will influence the teaching and learning of health education in Senior Secondary Schools.
3. To examine whether motivation will influence the attitude of students towards teaching and learning of health education in Senior Secondary Schools.
4. To investigate whether teacher’s personality will influence the attitude of students towards teaching and learning of health education.
5. To find out whether the teaching methods of health education will influence the attitude of students towards the teaching and learning of health education in schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised in this study:
1. Will the attitude of students influence the teaching and learning of health education?
2. Will the attitude of teachers influence the teaching and learning of health education in Senior Secondary Schools?.
3. Will the motivation of students influence the attitude of students towards teaching and learning of health education in Senior Secondary Schools?.
4. Will the teacher’s personality influence the attitude of students towards teaching and learning of health education?
5. Will the teaching method of health education influence the attitude of students towards the teaching and learning of health education in schools?
The following hypotheses were formulated:
1. Attitude of students will not significantly influence the teaching and learning of health education in Senior Secondary Schools.
2. Attitude of teachers will not significantly influence the teaching and learning of health education in Senior Secondary Schools.
3. Motivation will not significantly influence the attitude of students towards teaching and learning of health education in Senior Secondary Schools.
4. Teacher’s personality will not significantly influence students; attitude towards teaching and learning of health education in Senior Secondary Schools.
5. Teaching methods will not significantly influence students’ attitude towards the teaching and learning of health education in Senior Secondary Schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following:
1. Teachers: The findings of this study will sensitize the teachers on areas that require adjustments to promote the teaching and learning of health education in Junior Secondary Schools. It will expose the ideal teaching methods that would promote good health practice in the community.
2. Students: Students would become aware of the need for health practices in order to promote healthy living among the young ones.
3. The School Authorities: The school authorities and policy makers would be sensitized on the need to place health education in the curriculum and a lot appropriate time table to health education as a subject in the school.
4. The Society: The findings of this study will be beneficial to the members of the larger society because it will help them to be more aware of how teaching and learning affects students attitude, motivation, interest and overall behaviour in learning health education.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study is delimited to senior secondary school students in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State. This will include students of five (5) schools of Mainland local government area of Lagos State
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The limitations of the study were as a result of unforeseen circumstances that could frustrate the outcomes of the study. Also the problems of the time constraints and distance to be covered by the researcher in the course of carrying out this study were some of the limitations. However all these envisaged problems will be taken care of by the researcher and will not be allowed to prevent the result of the study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
1. Health Education – Health education is a process of teaching the child the rudiments of how best to promote, maintain an improve his/her health either at home, at school or in the community. It is the in calculation of how to achieve hygiene in a child.
2. Teaching – This is a process of imparting knowledge or the transfer of knowledge from somebody who knows (the teacher) to an individual who does not know (the students).
3. Attitude – This refers to an organization of motivational perceptional and cognitive process with respect to some aspects of the individual’s world. The attitude one has on something determines to a great extent, how he/she would be involved in that thing. Attitude affects all we do in human life.
4. Learning: This refers the situation whereby students or any other individual masters certain skills in teaching, either in the classroom or outside of it.