AN EXAMINATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CORPORATE PLANNING IN MANAGEMENT PROCESS (A CASE STUDY OF DIAMOND BANK PLC)
The Nigeria business is so volatile, to the extent that only those who can scan it successfully, forecast the possible charges in it and thereafter marshal all available resources in accordance with the dictates and demands of the environment can operate successfully in it.
This project work is to assess and examine the effectiveness of corporate planning as the management process and also to evaluate its contribution as a catalyst to the survival, growth and profitability of the organization.
The study examined corporate plan formulation and implementation in the organization. It highlighted how consultations, deliberations and condition for effective planning were properly taken care of. The project work also showed the dependence of the management functions like organizing, staffing, coordinating, reporting, leading and budgeting on effective corporate planning.
The dynamic of planning in Diamond Bank was appraised. The evolution, implementation, success and benefits of corporate planning in bank was discussed. The findings showed that corporate planning process and implementation in Diamond Bank is quite impressive. The workers embrace it, contribute fully to its success and show loyalty and commitment to the plan. Management in turns encourages them through motivation and effective communication.
This in conclusion planning is greatly helping the bank to maintain its competitive edge in the country.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page Certification
Table of Contents
1.2 General description of Area of Study
1.3 Problem Analysis
1.4 Purpose of the study
1.5 Research Question
1.6 Statement of Hypothesis
1.7 Definition of Unfamiliar Term/Concept
1.8 Delimitation or Scope of the Study
1.9 Significant of the Study
2.0 Historical Background of Diamond Bank Plc
2.1 Fundamental of Corporate Planning
2.2 Intuition and Planning
2.3 Guides to Planning
2.4 Climate Planning
2.5 Responsibility for Planning
2.6 Principles of Planning
2.7 Theories of Planning
2.8 Method of Planning
2.9 The Planning Process
2.10 Approaches to Formal Corporate Planning
2.11 Operational Planning
2.12 Forecasting Techniques for Planning
2.13 Medium Range Programming
2.14 Advantages AND Disadvantages of Corporate Planning
2.15 Strategic Planning
2.16 Planning and Management Process
2.17 Concept of Business Organization
2.18 Corporate Planning Responding to Today’s Need
2.19 The Need for Corporate Planning
2.20. The Impact of Comprehensive Planning on Financial Performance
2.21 The Process of Strategic Planning in Banking
2.22 Planning in Financial Institution: The Case for Awareness
2.23 Management by Objective
2.24. Barriers to Planning
2.25 Common Problem in Strategic Planning
2.26 Problem of Corporate Planning in Nigeria
2.27 Obstacles to Effective Implementation of Strategic Plans
2.28 Pitfalls of Strategic Planning
3.1 Restatement of Research Questions and Hypotheses
3.2 Study of the Population
3.3 Research Design
3.4 Data Collection Instrument
3.5 Data Collection Administration
3. 6 Data Analysis Techniques
3.7 Limitation of Methodology
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.2 Rate of Response
4.3 Subject Description
4.4 Data on Corporate Planning and Management Process
4.5 Involvement in Planning and Implementation
4.6 Goals and Objectives Stated and Achieved
4.7 Effective of Corporate Planning on Organizational Structure
4.8 Framework for Decision Making and Resources Allocation
4.9 Effective use of Information System Communication Technology and Forecasting Techniques
4.10 Effects of Organization Politics
4.11 Integration of Budgeting and Corporate Planning
4.12 Workers Contributions and Motivation
4.13 Effect of Corporate Planning on Management Process
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings
Corporate planning is the process of selected objectives, purpose or goals and deciding generally and specifically what should be done to attain these objectives. It is done at corporate level which covers the entire organization with due attention to various departments, sections, division and branches that up the organization. Corporate planning is also called strategic planning as a tool to aid management in strategic decision-making. The purpose of strategic planning thus to accomplish a sufficient process of innovation and change in the firm. It is a process a corporation follows thinking through before hand what is to be accomplished and to large extent how to accomplish it. This greatly simplifies the task of the manager and enables him to make most effective use of time, manpower and equipment, facilities and money.
Corporate planning is a systematic study, which is designed to help identify the of any organization. It is also a determined effort to attain the desired target and needed effort to attain the desired Target and examine the likely constraints as well as device a plan in which a set of objectives can be achieved. Corporate planning is done on a long-term basis and it involves an integrated approach to all aspects of the company’s activities by treating the company as a corporate entity where all the different branches, department and units, which make up tile organization are collectively taken care of rather than a collection of separate outfits. Any activity that does not aid in the strategic decision making of the firm is not corporate planning, even though it may seem to involve many of the ‘’right’’ elements of planning such as elaborate five years plan often does not influence strategic decision making aids. Effective corporate planning does not have to elaborated or complicated, but must be logical and focused on the strategic decision that will be taken (Lorange, 1980).
A very important aspect of corporate planning is the study of the environment in which the organization operates. This kind of study will include the past history, the present activities as well as the projection into the future. The ultimate objective of the process is to match company’s strength and weakness with environmental opportunities and threats, this is in order to be able to complete favorably and efficiently in the environment and consequently lead to accomplishment of organizations objectives and goals. Corporate planning consists of two major components. They are operational and strategic planning.
Operational planning deals with the day to day activities of the business and done along the Functional area like production planning, marketing planning, financial planning, manpower planning Etc. It also consist of single use plans which are developed to achieve specific purpose and dissolved when these have been accomplished for handling recurrent and predictable situations. Strategic planning on the other hand is the process of selecting an organization goals and also established, the methods necessary to ensure that the policies and programs are implemented. It is the formal process of determining long run objectives and how to achieve them.
Corporate strategic planning in the pattern of decision in a company that determines and reveals its objectives, purpose or goals produces and the principal policies and plans for achieving these goals and define the range of business the company is to pursue the kind of economic and human organization, it is or it intend to be and the nature of economic and non- economic contributions. It intends to make to its shareholders, employees, customer and communities. It is the type of plan that embodies time span and strategic formulation. It is a long term planning that has a time horizon of at least three years. It is also a clever device with the potential of evolving in the long run creation of additional resources that will facilitate and
hasten the attainment of long-term objectives and enable the organization to gain some relative advantages of current position and competitions.
Corporate strategic planning consists of nine steps as follows (Steiner, 1979):
1. Goal formulation and selection of missions and objectives.
2. Identification of current objectives and strategies.
3. Environment analysis.
4. Corporate appraisal or resource analysis.
5. Identification of strategic opportunities and threat.
6. Determination of the extent to which the strategic change is required.
7. Strategic, decision making.
8. Strategic implementation.
9. Strategic measurement and control process,
Therefore, it can be seen from the above that strategic planning is the formalized long-range planning process used to define and achieve organization goals. It actually provide consistent guidelines for the organization activities and helps the managers to recognize risky and safe opportunities and choose between them. It also minimizes the chance of mistakes an unpleasant surprises as goals objectives and strategies are subject to careful scrutiny and less likely to be faulty and unworkable. Thus in any planning process there should be strategic planning deals with long term and basic nature of business and provides overall framework for the business. It addresses the organization aims and defines the strategies and polices to achieve them and also develops the detailed plans to ensure that the strategies are implemented in order to achieve the end result. Strategic planning provides the structure and operational planning translates all into current and day to day activities and take off from there. They both complement each other and from the corporate planning process of the
organization. By this, it would be observed that corporate planning is essential and fundamental to the discharge of management functions and crucial to the achievement of its goals and objectives. It is often argued that management without planning is incomplete and purposeless. This is because it is through planning that management can recognize and also appreciate its potentials, scan its environment and judiciously employ resources. Management function which include planning, organization, coordinating, leading and directing, controlling, staffing, motivating and budgeting are inter related regardless of the manager skills. It is therefore particular revealing to note that these activities are step in corporate planning. This is because before managers can organize, lead, coordinate and motivate. They must make the plans that give purposes and directions to the organization, deciding what needs to be done and how it should be done and who is to do it. Therefore, manager must engage in corporate planning which defines fundamental goals and objectives in specific terms, determine the means to achieve them, provide a basic long range framework into which other forms of planning can fit, and all these action based on some method, plan or logic, rather than on bunch in order to strongly influence, the survival and growth of an organization in the contemporary, frequently volatile environment. This undoubtedly enable it to carryout the management function of organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, controlling, effectively and efficiently.
1.2 Background of Study
The Nigeria business is so volatile to the extent that only those who can scan it successfully, forecast the possible change in it and thereafter all available resources in accordance with the dictates and demands of the environment can operate successfully in it. The study examined corporate plan and implementation in the organization. It highlighted how consultations, deliberation and condition for effective planning were properly taken care. The study also showed the dependence of management function like organizing, staffing, coordinating, reporting, leading and budgeting on effective corporate planning. The dynamics of planning in Diamond Bank was appraised. The evolution, Implementation, success and benefits of corporate planning in the bank was discussed. The findings showed that corporate planning process implementation in Diamond Bank is quite impressive. The workers embrace it, contribute fully to its success and show loyalty and commitment to plan. Management in turn encouraging them through motivation and effective communication
1.3 Statement of Problems
Corporate planning a formal, systematic managerial process, organized by responsibility, time and information to ensure that operational planning, project planning and strategic planning are carried out by management to direct and control the future of the enterprise. The planning process also involve decision making. The is the process of developing into, and selecting a course of action to solve a specific problem. This is made at any point of the planning. There is also a close relationship between planning and controlling, control cannot take place unless a plan exists. Therefore control compares actual information about what is really happening during a plan’s implementation with the budget. In organizing and staffing corporate planning determines how human and material resources are coordinated, the number of people to be engage, the types of equipment to be used, and the quality and quantity of other resources that would be needed in order to attain organizational goals. So having said this, one appreciate the rationale for corporate planning and expect a lot of organization to embark on it with utmost seriousness. The sad thing is that the situation in Nigerian organization is that, only the large organizations and multinational companies embark on corporate planning the small and medium sized companies mostly do not [Adegbite, 1986].
This introduced cutthroat competition and most of the organization faced uninterrupted decline in their sale and level of profit [Bello and lyanda,1981]. These changes were mostly as a result of the political, social-cultural, economic historical and technological setting of the country. Many changes were created in the environment of the organizations because many governments try to manage the activities of given economies through the introduction of the various fiscal and monetary policies.
This led to a situation where organizations that were unable to participate and plan for these changes and eventually collapse. Therefore these organizations started realizing the in dispensation of a corporate plan, which will effectively take care of these changes. Most importantly the political Instability in the country which had led to and is still leading to frequent changes of regime from time to time make meaningful planning difficult task due to unpredictability of the environments.
Closely associated with these are:
Lack of management commitment to plan.
Rapid changes in the environment.
Uncertainty about government long term policies and legislation.
Over dependence on the budget, companies wait and are practically on stand still till the budget is read.
The roller coaster nature of the economy and excessive government interference in the private sector.
Lack of cohesiveness in general policy and inconsistency policy implementation by government. (Olukunle Iyanda, 1988). All these have planning in Nigeria a very difficult task.
1.4 Purpose of Study
The purpose of the study is to assess the effectiveness of the corporate planning as the management process and also to evaluate its contribution as a catalyst to the survival, growth and profitability of the organization. The motive is basically to assess the following components of the corporate planning which are:
Strategic planning, process and implementation.
Operational planning and its subcomponents like, singles use plan and standing plans.
The study is to examine corporate plan formulation and implementation in the organization.
It will highlight how the consultations deliberations and condition for effective planning are properly taken care of it will also show how the dependence of the management functions like organization, staffing, coordinating, reporting, leading and budgeting on effectiveness of the discharge of these functions depend on the corporate planning. Thus the pitfalls in Nigerian business environment will be highlighted and how the situation can be improved.
The dynamic of planning in the chosen organization will be appraised. The evolution implementation, success and benefits of corporate planning in the company shall be discussed. This will help to motivate and encourage other companies who are yet to embrace the practice and convince them that successful discharge of management function in order to accomplish that set of goals, objectives and purpose depend on adoption and implementation of a corporate plan.
1.5 Research Questions
Does corporate planning lead to attainment of organizational goals and objectives?
Does it provide framework for decision making and resources allocation?
How can corporate plan affect organization culture?
How can corporate plan affect organization structure?
To what extent are workers involved and motivated in the process?
To what extent do information systems, organizational politics and Forecasting techniques influence corporate planning?
Does corporate planning make use of technical qualitative method techniques?
How can corporate planning and budgeting be effectively integrated?
Are there significant effect of corporate planning on management process?
1.6 Statement of Hypotheses
1. Ho: Corporate planning does not lead to attainment of organizational goals and objectives.
Hi: Corporate planning leads to attainment of organizational goals and objectives.
2. Ho: It does not provide framework, for decision- making and resources allocation.
Hi: It provides framework for decision- making and resources allocation.
3. Ho: Corporate planning cannot affect organizational culture
Hi: Corporate planning can affect organizational culture.
4. Ho: Corporate planning does not involve and motivate workers.
Corporate planning involves and motivates workers.
5. Ho: Information systems, organizational politics and forecasting techniques do influence corporate planning.
Hi: Information system, organizational politics and forecasting techniques influence corporate planning.
6. Ho: Corporate planning does not make use of technical qualitative method techniques.
Hi: Corporate planning makes use of technical qualitative method techniques.
7. Ho: Corporate planning and budgeting are not effectively integrated.
Hi: Corporate planning and budgeting are effectively integrated.
8. Ho: There is no significant effect of corporate planning on management process.
Hi: There is significant effect of corporate planning on management process
1.7 Definition of Unfamiliar Terms/Concepts
CONTROLLING :- It consist of activities that are undertaken and to ensure that the event do not deviate from the pre-arranged place. Is also about checking and balances to understand the function and reason for control.
CO-ORDINATING :- Is the delegating activities and authority to carry out the co-ordinate in a cohesive manner.
CORPORATE PLANNING:- Is the process of selected objectives, purposes or goals and deciding generally and specifically what should be done to attain these objectives.
DIRECTING :- It ensures that employees do the jobs assigned to them. Also concerned with leadership, Communicating, Motivation and Supervision to ensure that employees perform their activities in order to achieve their goals.
IMPLEMENTATION :- Is a proof of the prudding and critical to make the process meaningful. Also is a tools in carrying out a project.
OPERATIONAL PLANNING :- Is a planning done at a lower levels, and focuses on doing those things right. It provides the details of how the strategic plans will be accomplished.
ORGANISING:- Is the directing or process of combining and determine the work which individual or group have to perform with the facilities necessary for it execution to reach the company goals.
ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE: – Is a plan of what the managers or owners of the company want the company the company to look like.
PLANNING :- Its refers to as forecasting planning that help the organization to decide how to raise present and future oriented for financing the organization.
STAFFING AND MOTIVATION: – Is the activities that concerned management in ensuring the staff of the organization to do their job and motivate them to grow on their job for the benefit of the company.
STRATEGIC PLANNING: – Is a tool to aid management in strategic decision- making. The purpose of strategic planning is to accomplish a sufficient process of innovation and change in the firm.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study will examine corporate planning process and implementation at Diamond Bank Plc. Apapa branch office. The study will cover lower level employees and managerial employees, its effect and impact on the performance of management functions and the extent of the integration of forecasting, information systems, budgeting, organization politics, culture and the use of TQM techniques and practices in the corporate planning process.
1.9 Significance of the Study
The Nigeria business environment is highly dynamic and turbulent changes take place every time these changes are in form of technological, political, economical, educational and socio cultural. Technology for instance, advances everyday at a fast pace making previous ones inefficient, obsolete and outdated. In the reel of politics, there is political instability in Nigeria.
From independence in 1960 till date there has been twelve governments with many coups and counter coups. This does not augur well with planning. Another is the successive effort of government to activities of the economy through fiscal and monetary policies arid to dynamism and volatility of the business environment.
Moreover, government intervention through the introduction of decrees and acts, privatization and commercialization programmes, the various national development plans rolling plans the actual feasibility of vision 2010. Make the business environment more complex and competitive. Therefore, organization have to be conscious of these change prepare ahead for them and strives to be proactive in the environment rather than reactive. The environment is also volatile to the extent that only those who can scan it successfully forecast the possible changes in it and thereafter marshal all available resources in accordance with the dictates and demand of the environment can operate successfully in it. Therefore the study is relevant, because it highlight the significance of environment audit in the planning process which will enable organization to compete favourably in the environment and achieve it aims and objectives.
Bello, J.A (1988) “Elements of business in Nigeria” University of Lagos press
Lorange, P (1980) “Corporate planning: An Executive viewpoint,” Englewood, Cliffs Prentice-Hill, Inc.
Steiner, G.A (1979) “Strategic Planning” New York the free press.