ANALYSIS OF PRIVATE UNIT COST OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN PUBLIC TERTIARY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA
The study analyzed the private unit cost of teacher education in public tertiary institutions in South-South Nigeria. It was aimed at finding out the actual private unit cost and also examined the various components of the private unit cost of teacher education in public tertiary institution in South-South Nigeria. The variations if any in the private unit cost of tertiary education along the variables of type of institution, programme of study, gender of students, year of study, place of residence and ownership of institution were also studied. Eight research questions were raised and answered while three hypotheses were formulated and tested.
A descriptive survey, employing the ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of full-time teacher education students in the twenty public tertiary institutions in the South-South Nigeria. A sample of 2,030 respondents was selected from twelve public colleges of education and universities, through a purposive, stratified random sampling techniques. A teacher education private unit cost checklist was constructed, validated and administered to the sample. Data collected were analyzed with the use of frequency counts, pie chart, bar graphs, percentages, z-test for independent samples and multiple regression statistics.
The findings revealed that the total private cost was N427,514,175.00, while the private unit cost was N210,598.12. The private unit academic cost was N75,332.00 (35.77%), while the private non-academic unit cost was N135,266 (64.23%). Vocational and Technical Education had the highest private unit cost of N215,234.32 (31.30%), followed by sciences N211,147.66 (23.37%), Arts and Social Sciences N210,721.49 (23.21%) and Languages N206,593.12 (23.11%). Female students had a higher private unit cost of N227, 983.79 (51.50%) while that of their male counterpart was N194, 844.90 (48.50%). The private unit cost of students in rented apartments was the highest with N299, 896, followed by those in school hostels with N206, 650.64 and family apartments, N164, 289.74. Year one students had a private unit cost of N233, 074.50, year two, N195, 483.15, year three, N205, 460.65, while year four was N204, 074.82. State owned tertiary institutions’ students had a higher private unit cost of N239, 228.09 than Federal institutions students with N179, 014.60. The study also revealed that significant differences exist in the private unit cost of teacher education students based on the type and status of ownership of institutions. It was concluded that the private unit cost of teacher education in public tertiary institutions is high in favour of female students, university students, vocational and technical education students, year one students, state owned institutions and students in rented apartments. It was recommended among others that multinational companies and agencies such as Chevron, Mobil and Shell should offer education students scholarship as they do for other tertiary education programmes such as law, engineering, and accounting.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Overview of Teacher Education in Nigeria
Development of Higher Education in Nigeria
Concept of Cost in Education
Types of Cost in Education
Concept of Unit Cost
Determinants of Cost in Education
Components of Private Cost in Teacher Education
Cost of Tertiary Education in some Countries
Relevance of Cost Analysis in Education
Summary of Literature
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Validity of the Instrument
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULTS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
Research Question 1
Research Question 2
Research Question 3
Research Question 4
Research Question 5
Research Question 6
Research Question 7
Research Question 8
Discussion of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Implications for Educational Planning
Suggestions for Further Research
Contribution to Knowledge
- Letter of Introduction to Institutions
- Checklist on Private Unit Cost of Teacher Education
- List of sampled public tertiary institutions
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Federal allocation to all levels of Education in
Nigeria between 2000 and 2012
Table 2: Distribution of selected tertiary institutions
Table 3 Distribution of respondents by type of institution
Table 4: Distribution of respondents by programme of study
Table 5: Distribution of respondents by gender
Table 6: Distribution of respondents by level study
Table 7: Distribution of respondents by type of residence
Table 8: Distribution of respondents by ownership of institution
Table 9 Private unit cost of teacher education
Table 10: Unit cost of teacher education
Table 11: Private unit academic cost of tertiary institution
Table 12: Unit non-academic cost of teacher education
Table 13: Private Unit cost of teacher education by type of institution
Table 14: Private unit cost by programme of study
Table 15: Private unit cost by gender of students
Table 16: Private unit cost by year of study
Table 17: Private unit cost by type of residence
Table 18: Private unit cost by ownership of institution
Table 19: z-test of independent sample of private unit
cost in tertiary institutions
Table 20: z-test of independent sample of ownership of Institution
Table 21: Private unit cost of the variables of study
Table 22: Regression analysis of variables
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Typology of cost in education
Figure 2: Private cost of education
Figure 3: Private unit cost of teacher education in tertiary institutions in South-South Nigeria
Figure 4: Academic cost component of teacher education
Figure 5: Non-academic cost of teacher education
Figure 6: Private unit cost in naira by type of institution
Figure 7: Private unit cost in naira by programme of study
Figure 8: Private unit cost by gender of students
Figure 9: Private unit cost based on year of study
Figure 10: Private unit cost based on place of residence
Figure 11: Private unit cost based on ownership of institution
Background to the Study
The rejection of the natural resources-national wealth nexus by human capital exponents such as Schultz (1961), Harbison and Meyer (1964), among others led to the popularization of education and training of human resources as veritable means for achieving sustainable national development. This development brings to the fore the need for teacher education institutions that would produce teachers necessary for fast tracking the education process.
In the teacher production process a lot of resources are needed. These include fiscal, materials and personnel resources. Fiscal resources which address the cost of production is perhaps one of the most important factors in the provision and procurement of the education in any nation or state. When the cost of the education enterprise is undermined the system as well as the stakeholders could face grave consequences. This opinion therefore emphasizes the need for stakeholders to recognize the need to have a reasonable idea of the social and private cost burden of education in general and teacher education in particular to facilitate the attainment of national educational goals.
Knowledge acquired through formal education is known to be a determining factor in the process of economic growth and development of nations. In the same manner teacher education is regarded as a major source of producing the required teachers needed for generating and disseminating the knowledge for national development. The cost of producing qualified teachers needed for national progress is worthy of immense considerations by stakeholders.
Nwadiani, (2005), opined that teacher education is of pivotal importance in the educational enterprise when considered against the background of the invaluable roles teachers play in the transmission of knowledge, value and building of a complete man. In recognition of the role of teacher education in nation building, the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004:39) identified the objectives of teacher education as follows:
- To produce highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of our educational system.
- To encourage and further the spirit of enquiring and creativity in teacher.
- To help teachers to fit into the social life of the community and society at large and to enhance their commitment to national objective (goals).
- To provide teachers with the maintenance and professional background adequate for their assignment and make them adaptable for any changing situation.
- To enhance teacher commitment to the teaching profession.
The realization of these objectives is not without any reasonable cost implication on the part of all stakeholders. Education generally is an expensive enterprise when considered against the backdrop of high capital and recurrent cost it demands; hence the need for all stakeholders to share in the cost. For instance, according to the Nigerian Commission for Colleges of Education NCCE (2000) the total recurrent and capital allocation for Federal Colleges of Education between 1993 and 1998 were N5,789,240,000 and N2,687,326,185, respectively, while the federal allocations to federal universities in Nigeria between 1998 and 2009 were N577,723,105,913:00 and N74,0540,74,425:10 respectively (NUC, 2012). Thus, adequate financing is a necessary determinant for a successful implementation of teacher education as part of general education.
Presently, according to the Federal Ministry of Education (2013) there are 129 Universities, 57 Polytechnics and 65 Colleges of education providing teacher education programme. All these institutions require infrastructure, equipment, and personnel in the right proportion. The provision of these resources require a lot of funds. It must be noted that No state can effectively run teacher education programmes that compromise cost on the altar of charity. If relevance and competitiveness are considered in line with global trend, the cost implications of providing teacher education is imperative.
According to Harbison (1973), Akangbou (1987), and Nwadiani (2002), and the realization that educated human resources are the active factors of production rather than natural resources that are passive has influenced nations to increase their investment interest in education in their national budgets. These renewed investment interests tend to affect the social cost of providing education to citizens.
Without adequate funds, manpower resource which is vital for development cannot be harnessed in the right quantity or quality.
In Nigeria for instance, inspite of the other competing sectors of the economy fiscal allocations to education (teacher education), which by implication is the social cost of providing education at all levels of the educational system tends to be relatively high.
The data in table I showed the level of fiscal allocation to education in Nigeria for some years.
Table 1: Federal Allocation to all levels of education in Nigeria between 2000 and 2012
Total Budget Trillion (N)
Education Allocation Billion (N)
UNESCO Standard (%)
Source: Education Sector Report (2009) and Federal Ministry of Education, Department of Planning and Statistics (2012).
Data in Table 1 shows the annual allocation to education in Nigeria and the corresponding percentages from 2000 to 2013 respectively. Despite the increasing volume of allocations over the years, they are grossly inadequate when compared to the United Nations recommendation of 26% for developing countries like Nigeria. This inadequacy could be traceable to the unstable national economic status of the country. It further showed that the highest Federal Fiscal allocation to education in Nigeria was 13% in 2008, while 2001 recorded the lowest allocation of 2.0%. These low figures have grave implications on teacher education. This is so because whatever is available will be thinly shared among the subsectors of the education industry. They include pre-primary, primary, secondary, tertiary including teacher education and the parastatals in education.
Adebayo (2012), observed that the percentage allocation for teacher education in Nigeria for the past five years has been between 8% to 10% of the total education budget. This implies that more funds are needed for teacher education.
For example Edo State allocation to College of Education, Ekiadolor between 2008 to 2014 shows a meager sum when compared to the annual budget of the state within the same period. This is presented in table 2.
Table 2: Edo State allocation to College of Education, Ekiadolor between 2008 to 2014.
Edo State Budget (N Billion)
Allocation to College of Education (N Million)
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