Crateva adansonii is a medicinal herb commonly used in parts of Africa because of the side effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAID), like heart diseases and kidney failure. Inflammation is a major public heart issue in the world but treatment is becoming complex because of the side effects of anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical drugs. Hence the need for alternative drug is highly required. This research work investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of Crateva adansonii stem bark, using rodent model. Adult Swiss albino rats (110-200g) of either sex were randomly divided into 5 groups of 4 animals each. Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 received different doses of the extract (300mg, 500mg, 700mg, and 900mg) in 3% v/v tween 80 administered intraperitonally respectively. Control group-1 received volume of 3%v/v tween 80 and standards group received 100mg/kg Ibuprofen. One hour later acute inflammation was induced by injection of 0.1ml of undiluted egg albumin into the sub planter of the right hand paw of rats. The volume of the paw was measured by mercury displacement before and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 & 3 hours after egg albumin injection, while the standard was measured at internals of one hour, for up to 4 hours. Edema formation was assessed in terms of the difference in the zero time per volume of the injected pair and its volume at the different time after egg albumin injection. For each dose of extract, percentage inhibition of edema was calculated percentage inhibition. Result show that Crateva adansonii may have anti-inflammatory effects. This finding supports the use stem bark of Crateva adansonii in not only traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation.
Research on analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs has gained great attention for the past ten years (Farouk et al., 2008). However, the number of new drugs remains low. Most analgesic and anti- inflammatory compounds available on market have adverse effects, including life-threatening, bleeding or perforation of gastro duodenal tract (Buttgereit et al., 2001). Consequently there results the need to search for more active compounds with less adverse effects.
Free radicals and reactive oxygen species are by products of numerous physiological and biochemical processes. Natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects have been found in a number of food and agricultural products like seed, roots, stem bark. Besides the traditional resources used for antioxidants, many plant species have been investigated in the search for natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effect.
There is renewed and increased interest in plants as source of new pharmaceutical drugs. Crateva Adansonii commonly known as the garlic pear and temple plant and many other names in a variety of dialect has been viewed to have great anti inflammatory effect, thus studied here on.(Banias et al. 1992).
Anti-inflammation is therefore understood as a process in which the body responds to antigenic stimulus to injuries and infections in a coordinated manner in order to contain a site of change, localize the responds and restore tissue function .it involves the reaction of vascularized tissues to local injury and the local reaction and resulting morphological changes, the destruction or removal of infectious material etc. (Koch 1972).
1.1 Crateva Adansonii
The flowering tree is called the sacred garlic pear and temple plant, genus: Crateva, Family: Capparaceae. The tree is sometimes called the spider tree because the showy flowers bear long, spidery stamens. It is native to Japan, Australia, much of Southeast Asia and several South Pacific islands. It is grown elsewhere for fruit, especially in parts of the African continent. The fruit of the tree is edible. The nectar-filled flowers are attractive to a multitude of insects and birds. The pierid butterfly (Hebomoiaglaucippe) is a frequent visitor to this plant. The rough back of this plant is faintly greenish especially when dried up.
Mostly, the bark of this plant stem, root and leaves are medicinal, and hence giving focus to the study of the stem bark for anti-inflammatory effect is highly proper and considerable.
1.2 Research Aim and Objectives.
The research aim at the use of Crateva adansonii methanol extract to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of different fraction of the extract, by administration of this fraction on induced acute inflammation. Using fresh egg albumin, on adult albino rats. As an objective to compare the therapeutic potential, either to observe the physiological impact of Crateva adansonii methanol extracts fractions on white albino rats and determines the anti-inflammatory effect.
2.1 Definition of Inflammation
Inflammation is the body’s attempt at self-protection, the aim being to remove harmful stimuli, including damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens and begin the healing process.
When something harmful or irritating affects a part of our body, there is a biological response to try to remove it, the signs and symptoms of inflammation, specifically acute inflammation which is a type of inflammation, show that the body is trying to heal itself. Inflammation does not mean infection, even when an infection causes inflammation. Infection is caused by a bacterium, virus or fungus, while inflammation is the body’s response to it.
INFLAMMATION AS PART OF OUR INNATE IMMUNITY.
Our innate immunity is what is naturally present in our bodies when we are born, and not the adaptive immunity we get after an infection or vaccination. Innate immunity is generally non-specific, while adaptive immunity is specific to one pathogen, for example Whooping cough vaccine being specific to one pathogen.
2.1.1 WHAT IS ANTI-INFLAMMATION?
Anti-inflammation refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. Anti-inflammatory drugs make up about half of analgesics, remedying pain by reducing inflammation as opposed to opioids, which affect the central nervous system.