ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF Spondias mombin STEM BARK AND ROOT
In traditional setting, Spondias mombin is used in the management of different ailments. This has been attributed to its rich phytochemical and antioxidant properties. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytochemical as well as antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of Spondias Mombin. The extracts of Spondias Mombin were investigated for phytochemical such as tannins, saponins, alkaloids,total flavonoids, total phenol and proanthocyanidin, while the in vitro antioxidant activity were determined using ferrous metal chelating assay, antioxidant power assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Result obtained for phytochemical studies reveal that phenolic content was highest in the aqueous extract of Spondias Mombin stem bark as against aqueous extract of Spondias mombin root which have a low phenolic content. Also, proanthocyanidin was highest in aqueous extract of Spondias mombin root and low in aqueous extract of Spondias Mombin stem bark. Qualitative study show the presence of the various phytochemicals in varying amounts, however, alkaloid were absent in both aqueous extract of spondias mombin root and stem bark, tannins were present only in aqueous extract of Spondias Mombin stem bark, while cardiac glycosides were present only aqueous extract of Spondias Mombin stem bark. The aqueous extract of Spondias Mombin stem bark showed the best IC50 value (2.66 ×109) for 1,1-Diphenyl-2,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, when compared with root extract, but, was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the standard, vitamin C (1.281). Also, aqueous extract of Spondias Mombin stem bark showed the best IC50 for ferrous metal chelating assay when compared with the root extract, but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of standard, (EDTA) (4.031). Therefore, Spondias Mombin has a great potential for use as a natural source of antioxidants against free radical damage.