AN APPRAISAL OF EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP AND ORGANISATION OBJECTIVE IN NIGERIA
In modern society, economic prosperity and progress depend largely on the quality of leadership. This is true of nation states as it is of individuals or generate among policy makers, corporate executives and investors are largely justified. Leadership is very essential in an organization because achievements and results occur corollary to the traits being projected by the leader. The major aim of every organization is to grow. The relationship between the management and employees has a great impact to that effect. Employees will be expecting to earn higher so as to sustain their living while the management will be expecting employee to work had so as to see that the objectives of the organization is realized. Organizational objective is more or less a pure psychology attached to the institutional companies and applicable to achieve organisational goals. It constitutes the activities of an organisation that can be observed by another organisation or by experimental instruments. The research work will focus on the leadership and effects of leadership style, appraisal and organisational objective in Nigeria. The work is made up of five chapters. In the first chapter we will discuss about the general ideas of leadership, organisational objective and its effects on management and employee. In the second chapter we shall look into the literature review, we shall look into various authors who have researched on the leadership styles, appraisal and organisational objective of management and employees. In chapter three, we will present research methodology while chapter four will be presentation of data analysis. We shall also interpret the data and test the hypothesis and finally, chapter five will be summaries, findings and recommendation.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
GENERAL IDEA OF LEADERSHIP
Leadership is a process in which a leader attempts to influence his or her followers to establish and accomplish a goal or goals.
The capacity to lead others: command, lead.
An act or instance of guiding: direction, guidance, lead, management. See affect/ineffectiveness.
Leadership is the process through which an individual tries to influence another individual or a group of individuals to accomplish a goal. Leadership is valued in our culture, especially when it helps to achieve goals that are beneficial to the population, such as the enactment of effective preventive health policies. An individual with leadership qualities can also improve an organization and the individuals in it, whether it be a teacher who works to get better teaching materials and after school programs or an employee who develops new ideas and products and influences others to invest in them.
Leadership can be exhibited in a variety of ways and circumstances. Mothers and fathers show leadership in raising their children with good values and encouraging them to develop to their potential. Teachers show it in inspiring students to learn and to develop their intellectual capacity. Health care workers can be leaders and develop services that meet the needs of the communities they serve, or work in collaboration with other organizations to create cost effective, prevention oriented programs and services.
Many studies have been done and many books and articles have been published on this subject. Through this work a consistent set of leadership attributes has emerged. An effective leader does most, if not all, of the following:
Challenge the Process search out challenging opportunities, take risks, and learn from mistakes.
Inspire others to come together and agree on a future direction or goal— create a shared vision by thinking about the future, having a strong positive vision, and encouraging others to participate.
Help others to act—help others to work together, to cooperate and collaborate by developing shared goals and building trust, and help to make others stronger by encouraging them to develop their skills and talents.
Set an example—behave in ways that are consistent with professed values and help others to achieve small gains that keep them motivated, especially when a goal will not be achieved quickly.
Encourage others—recognize each individual’s contributions to the success of a project.
Another way of defining leadership is to acknowledge what people value in individuals that are recognized as leaders. Most people can think of individuals they consider being leaders. Research conducted in the 1980s by James Kouzes and Barry Posner found that a majority of people admire, and willingly follow, people who are honest, forward looking, inspiring, and competent
An individual who would like to develop leadership skills can profit from the knowledge that leadership is not just a set of exceptional skills and attributes possessed by only a few very special people. Rather, leadership is a process and a set of skills that can be learned.
The word leadership can refer to: the process of leading. Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading.
Kouzes (2002) states that “Leadership is not a place, it‘s not a position, and it‘s not a secret code that can‘t be deciphered by ordinary people. Leadership i s an observable set of skills and abilities. Of course some people are better at it than others.”
In general terms, leadership can be defined as the ability to influence the behaviour of others.
This definition can be expanded when considering leadership in organizations to include the fact that the leader exerts influence within a working group in order that the group may achieve group tasks or objectives. (T .Lucy 1997) leadership is an everyday art involving the skill of leading and dealing with people. The success in ruling new dominions is contingent upon both his ability to wield power effectively, and the existence of an opportunistic situation. Problems, which result within organizational members, disagree on both the natures of the goals of which people disagree on both the natures of the goals of which people aspire, and the act of leadership. Leadership, as we use the term refers to behaviour, undertaken within the context of an organisational members behave.
It could be observed that leadership and management envisages deeply into what the organization can achieve if the quality of recognition is accorded to them. Leadership has been propounded to include the sources of influence that are built into a position in an organizational hierarchy.
These include organizationally sanctioned rewards, and punishments, authority, as well as referent and expert power katz and kahn 1966, p.32. It could be seen however, that subordinates within the organization, through not all seem to enjoy the influence that exists all over and above the organization.
Leadership is very essential organization and greatly influences the whole organization because achievements and results occur corollary to the traits being projected by the leader. Leadership includes the ultimate source of power but has that positive ability in persuading other individuals and to be innovative in decision making. According to Bennis and Nanus, many organizations are over managed and under led. The difference is crucial, managed are people who do things right, but leaders are people who do the right things always.
Problems are bound to occur within every noted organisation and decision making is bound to generate conflicts while initiating policies.
People are expected to coordinate. Whatever they are doing to achieve organizational goals. In this light, the notion of leadership act are those which help a grouping meeting those stated objectives (Bavelas 1960:p491).in general terms the acts of controlling other people consists uncertainty reduction ,which entails making the kind of choice that permits the organization to proceed towards its objective despite various kinds of internal and external variables.
The effectiveness of leadership has some characteristics, which include forceful threats, a complete assertion of authority to the subordinates, and a derived, and situational responsibility.
Note that in the society today, not only the presence of rewards (positive and negative), or the incentive appraisal could induce productivity but the feeling of belongingness.
Improper leadership qualities within the organization have a negative impact on the subordinates as well as the achievement of the organizational objective. An organization that has growth and forward looking has a good leadership and vis a vis a bad or deteriorating organization has a bad leadership.
Leadership is always related to the situation. There is a growing awareness that is a continuous interaction between the factors presents in any given situation, including for example, the personal characteristics of the leader, the tasks, the environment, the technology, the attitudes, motivation and behaviour of the followers and so on.
1.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF DIAMOND BANK PLC
Diamond Bank Plc began as a private limited liability company on March 21, 1991 (the company was incorporated on December 20, 1990). Ten years later, in February 2001, it became a universal bank. In January 2005, following a highly successful Private Placement share offer which substantially raised the Bank’s equity base, Diamond Bank became a public limited company. In May 2005, the Bank was listed on The Nigerian Stock Exchange. Moreover, in January 2008, Diamond Bank’s Global Depositary Receipts (GDR) was listed on the Professional Securities Market of the London Stock Exchange. The first bank in Africa to record that feat.
Today, Diamond Bank is one of the leading banks in Nigeria respected for its excellent service delivery, driven by innovation and operating on the most advanced banking technology platform in the market. Diamond Bank has over the years leveraged on its underlying resilience to grow its asset base and to successfully retain its key business relationships. And like a diamond, our strength makes us even more valued and valuable. Diamond Bank has won several awards including the prestigious “Most Improved Bank of the Year”- This day Newspapers, “Best Bank in Mergers & Acquisition”.
We have retained excellent banking relationships with a number of well-known international banks, allowing us to provide a bouquet of world class banking services to suit the business needs of our clients. These international banking partners include Citibank; HSBC Bank; ANZ Banking Group; ING BHF Bank AG; Standard Chartered Bank; Belgolaise Bank S.A; Deutsche Bank; Commerzbank; and Nordea Bank Plc.
In 2008, and to ensure we grow with the needs of our customers, we streamlined our operations into three distinct strategic business segments: Retail banking, Corporate Banking, and Public sector.
Diamond Bank continues to develop and to build on its core competencies. By continually cutting from the rough, we have improved our services and our banking facilities. Like cutting from a rough gem to create a diamond of the finest quality, we are proud to have become a gem of a bank.
An effective leadership has been widely acknowledged as a potent instrument for achieving organisation goals and objectives. Leadership is an important aspect of managing the ability to lead effectively is one of the keys to being an effective manager; the essence of leadership is fellowship.
In other words, it is the willingness of people to follow that makes a person a leader. Moreover, people tend to follow those whom they perceive as providing a means of achieving their own desires, wants and needs. That is why any organization that desires to achieve her objectives, must have an effective and efficient leadership who knows how to apply all the management principles in achieving her organizational objectives. The leader must be one who is willing to work with zeal and confidence. Zeal here reflects ardor earnestness, and intensity in the execution of work, confidence reflects experience and technical ability. To lead is to guide, conduct, direct and proceed. Leaders act to help a group achieve objectives with maximum application of its capabilities. They should not be leaders who do not stand behind a group or organization to push and to proud. They should place themselves before. The group as they facilitate progress and inspire the group to accomplish organizational goals. This is the kind of leadership we desire to have in our institutions. Furthermore, it should be noted that, any organization without an effective efficient leadership is like one driving a car without a head-lamp in the night. This could be very dangerous and could also limit their chances of achieving their objectives. That most organizations do not realize their goals and objectives could be attributed to inefficient and ineffective leadership. For an institution like (case study), to realize all her laudable organizational goals should have an effective leadership who possess all the required leadership traits and qualities.
Leadership according to Katz and Kahn (1978:p.16) is generally defined simply as influence, the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly to achieve a group goal. This concept can be enlarged to imply not only willingness to work but also willingness to work with zeal and confidence. Zeal reflects ardor, earnestness, and intensity in the execution of work, confidence reflects experience and technical ability. To lead is to guide, conduct, direct and precede.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The design of the investigation is to elicit the effect of the different leadership styles in finance oriented and services oriented organization in order to determine its distinct impact on the organizational behaviour of management and employees in the case organization.
I: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the factors of leadership (the traits: intelligence, initiative, imagination, communication, the skills, analytical, diagnostic, conceptual, the status, recognition and the situation) culture in the case organisation with the view to calculate their contribution in attaining organisational objective. (Contribution to efficiency and growth in profit).
II: The object on the inquiry is to ascertain the most favourable leadership style amongst autocratic, democratic, paternalistic, and laissez faire, used in the case organisation to determine its influence on management and employees.
III: The intention of the investigation is to compare the relationship (positive or negative) between leadership and organisational behaviour in the finance and service oriented organisation to identify the effect on work performance.
IV: The purpose of the study is to correlate the leadership style to organisational behaviour of management and employees in DIAMOND
BANK to decide the trend and influence of leadership style on the organisational behaviour of management and employees
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study will address the following objectives.
i. To evaluate the roles of effective leadership in achieving organisational goals and objectives
ii. To determine the impact of the role of efficient leadership in an organisation.
iii. To find out if there is any need for the role of effective leadership in an organization.
iv. To assess whether the strategies adopted have been very effective and efficient in the achievement of organization goals.
v. To study the climate under which an effective leadership will thrive.
vi. To find out whether, the students and the employees are satisfied with the roles of effective leadership in an organization
vii. To study whether the roles of effective and efficient leadership have been very effective and efficient in achieving organisational goals.
viii. To find out the problems limiting the efficacy of the roles of effective organisational goals.
ix. To recommend on how best to enhance the effective and efficient roles of effective leadership in the achievement of organisational goals.
1.4 FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
In aiming to go on with the stated problem of study, the following research problem oriented hypotheses are revealed.
HYPOTHSIS I: Leadership style that display intelligence, initiative and communication traits, analytical, diagnostic and conceptual skills, recognition and situation, contributes certainly to attaining organisational efficiency and growth in point.
HYPOTHESIS II: The leadership style that has no monopoly of authority improves interpersonal relationship that employee oriented determines positive reaction in form of contribution to decision making, punctuality and work to achieve company goals.
HYPOTHSIS III: Positive relationship between leadership and organisational behaviour in the case of organisation will increase the work performance.
HYPOTHESIS IV: Positive correlation between the leadership style and organisational behaviour in and DIAMOND BANK will lead to increase performance to achieve organisational objectives and goals.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To solve the research problems, the researcher or the investigator has asked the following questions.
i. Is there any need for the role of effective leadership in the achievement of organisation goals
ii. Which leadership style is most profound in the (your case study here) ?
iii. Has the role of effective leadership any impact in the employees utilization of capability?
iv. Has environmental factors affected the roles of effective leadership in achieving orgnaisational goals?
v. Has the kind of leadership and employees satisfied with the roles of effective leadership in achievement of effective leadership in achievement organizational goals ?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is very timely, especially now that all hands are on decoct to enhance the development and growth of education in our tertiary institutions nationwide. This study will be of immense benefit to other business enterprise on how to determine the best leadership style to adopt in achieving her enterprise goals and objectives. In addition, the study will determine the factors or problems limiting the attainment of organization’s goals. It Is excepted that her findings will help to bridge any gap that may exist and make our tertiary institutions and other sectors adopt the best leadership style aimed at achieving her organisation laudable goals. It is very necessary in the achievement of organisation’s goals, and to evaluate its effectiveness, especially now that we talk of granting our institutions autonomy in handling their own affairs. It seems that a lot of problems are being encountered that make the roles of effective leadership not productive and viable.
This study will determine why most effective leadership do not achieve their organisation’s goals.
Organization (your case study name here), Enugu, must achieve her corporate objectives in order to justify her existence. This cannot be possible without the roles of effective leadership
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY.
The scope of this study is very wide if it has to be carried out nationwide. This study is sample narrowed to (your case study name here), (your case study name here), and it based on the evaluation of the roles of effective leadership in the achievement of organization’s goals.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In pursuing this investigation and study, lots of impediments and obstruction were encountered as the research progressed. All these impediments brought about a conspicuous clause with the research work. They include, lack of relevant data due to poor respondent, time constraint and financial conditions.
Lack of relevant data: The design of the study was negatively affected by the nature of respondent, which was projected by the workers within the case organisation. The non challant attitude of most employees approached, sample of the studying population was discouraging relevant information needed for the research was not made available easily to the researcher while the available information were censored before being allowed to be used.
A. TIME CONSTRAINT: Time was also limited to the researcher in carrying out the study effectively and efficiently. Time constraint was experienced under dual stages. One was with the sample under population study. They either schedule appointment that they cannot meet up with or complain of limited time within their work though they are willing to respond.
In addition, the other was with the researcher. The research is being carried out within limited semester time table, which include the understudy of other aspect of the course being read. This created a situation of not rescheduling meetings for more comprehensive interviews as may have been required.
B. FINANCIAL CONDITION: Financial condition prevailing within the economic system was a serious impediment. This includes transportation fare to and from school to the case organisations. Also that of extracting the essential information either through printing or photocopying of relevant materials. Finance, thus contributed immensely to limit the entire scope of the research.
Although all these obstructions were envisaged and experienced, efforts were made to carry on with the research to achieve the expected and desired result.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Leadership -This is generally defined as – influence, the art or process of influence people so that they will strive willingly toward the achievement of group goal.
Effectiveness – This refers to the extent to which output is in line with organizational objectives.
Efficiency – This is defined as fitness or power to accomplish or in accomplishing the purposes intended it described the relationship between resources consumed in process of generating effective output and the output so produced.