APPRAISAL OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study appraised the implementation of Universal Basic Education in Nigeria.

The population comprised of female teachers in Education District Bariga Area of Lagos State.

A total of one hundred and eighty female teachers were used as sample.

Five hypotheses were postulated and tested in the study.

The study involved the administration of universal Basic Education in Bariga Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria.

The statistical technique employed was Pearson product moment correlation to determine whether there is significant relationship between the following variables gender inequality, educational opportunities, economic opportunities, political opportunities, poor funding, implementation ‘parental economic status girl-child education enrolment and completion.

The following findings were made based on the result of the analyses.

i. There is no significant relationship between gender inequality and educational opportunities available for girl-child.

ii. There is a significant relationship between gender inequality and economic opportunities available for women.

iii. There is a significant relationship between gender inequality and political opportunities available for women.

iv. There is no significant relationship between poor funding andimplementation of universal basic education.

v. There is a significant relationship between parental economic status and the girl-child education enrolment and completion.

These findings were discussed and recommendations were made.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Nigeria recognizes education as a fundamental human right and it is signatory to the major conventions for the protection of the children and women, especially the conventions on the right of the child. (CRC)and the convention of the elimination of discrimination against women. In 2003, the government of Nigeria passed into law the child right act. This act is at facilitating the realization and protection of the rights of all children. In the question to achieve the objectives of millennium development goals it enacted the Universal basic education laws, which provides for a 9 years free and compulsory education to fast track education interventions at the primary and junior secondary schools.

In Nigeria there is a national gender disparity in basic education environment, retention and competition against girls most especially rural communities at a disadvantage.

Access to formal schooling still poses a problem. It is estimated that 7.3 million children of whom 60% are girls are not in school. Drop out is more pronounced at primary 6 where more than 17% of children dropout of school yearly the dropout issue. Its multifarious dimensions, the most significant of which are early marriage for girls in the worth, boys and girls engagement in income generating activities to supplement household income in the south eastern.

The poor quality of the education system and perceived weak employment prospect for school and university leaves are so key factors affecting dropout and low transition from primary school to junior secondary school.

In addition, dropout is also attributable to poor teacher quality, scarcity or inadequacy of teaching and learning materials, over crowded classroom and a general absence of learner friendly environment.

Egenti (2008) observed that deprivation of educational opportunity to girls is likely to exclude them from the main stream of development in future, increase the dependency ratio of the population and results in the under development of a Nation.

Anan (2001) posited that no development strategy in better than one that involves women as central players, it has immediate benefits for institution health and reinvestment of the family community and ultimately country level. Educating girls is a school development policy that works. It is a long term investment that yields exceptional huge success.

Lagos state was created in 1967; its population has continued to grow on geometric level, base on the result that it is the fastest growing megacity in the world recently. It is the economic nerve centre of the nation. It continues to attract people within and outside the country. In a nutshell, Lagos state is a mini Nigeria.

As a result of the ever increasing population the infrastructure is over stretched, and it is affecting the quality of services been provided and which invariable affects the state in term of living to spend more money on the provision of infrastructural facilities. This ever increasing population school enrolment in Lagos state in recent year has continue to grow on average of 130 student to a teacher most especially in areas where we have high population density.

Adeyemi (2007), stated that the general Universal Basic Education programme is a response to the Universal declaration of human right (1948) which stipulated the right of every citizen to basic education. As a result follow-up to this declaration section 19 of Nigeria 1999 constitution stipulated that government shall direct its policy toward enduring that there are equal education opportunities at all levels in line with the Federal Republic of Nigeria. National policy on Education (2004).

The objective of the Universal Basic Education scheme include among others, the provision of universal access to basic education, provision of a conducive learning environments, the eradication of illiteracy within the shortest possible time as well as the ability to communicate, the objectives also include laying of sound basis for scientific reflective thinking development of social attitudes giving every child the opportunity of developing manipulation skills that would enable him to function effectively in the society, Babalola 2000, Obayo 2000, Olubor and Unyimade 2001.

Education is one of the key sectors for advancing gender equality and women’s empowerment. It effects in improving the conditions of women’s lives through enhancing their access to public participation and employment. In addition education has the potentials of strengthening the position of women through providing them with view skills to negotiate for better conditions of work, pay and domestic rights. The firm behalf in the positive role that education can play in improving women’s condition and position, also through its role in reproducing inter-generational benefits for children, has become a central aspect of Nigeria government.

Engenti (2008), posited that developing countries like Nigeria, parental involvement way to have to be initiated and enhanced before girls access and participation in educational programmes can achieved. This nexus is the path tracer factor or determinant of girls enrolment rate which helps in changing parental attitudes, regarding the value of girls and in educating females about the benefits of educational programme for the boy child. The girl child can even be made to help in the financing of boy’s education by being housemaid or assisting their parents in income earning activities to pay for boys education. Even when the girls have access to education, the home activities usually circumscribe their academic performance in school. This is because they have little or no time to their assignments or attend extra lessons because of the work they are expected to do at home.

When they are prejudices against basic education, it is mostly that the incidences of prostitution, early marriage and teenage pregnancy will put end to the girls education. FGN/UNICEF (2001) reports that, this is more pronounced in rural areas and in the northern part of Nigeria where 55% of girls aged 15-19 are either already mother or are pregnant. Unless there in charge in the mind set of power elite in the region ability to make a break through in the universal basic education need bold action.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

There is gender disparity between boys and girls in schools enrolment in Nigeria in favour of boys. Education of the boy, child in usually considered more important than the girls based on internal and external discontinuity factors, such as domestic responsibilities direct costs of education are a constraints on girl participation based on the perception of low economic returns to female labour, school environments can be deterrents to girls learning and completion of schooling including, availability of sanitation facilities for adolescent girls schools secure from abuse including by fellow pupils and teachers, well it roads and transport arrangement to minimize threats to girls safety, school culture norms and traditions such as early marriage, dowry and initiation ceremonies at the onset of sexual maturation can also be determent.

Access to quality education in been hindered by ever increasing student population in public in Lagos state.

Coupled with few and deteriating facilities such building chairs and devices. Student teachers ratio is an average of 130 student to one teacher in a nut shell over crowdness in a affecting the quality of education being provided. majority of the women are found in non formal economic sector such as petty trading road clearing etc. women empowerment in the political area is very low compare to the high level men holding political appointment in Lagos state.

It might then be argued that women holding political offices, it could be difficult to implement properly the power equity and women empowerment goal of millennium development programme in Lagos state.

In this regard the low level of girl child enrolment in public school, over crowdness high students ratio to low teachers non availability of facilities poor health facilities available to women in the state are some of the problem which this study intended to examine.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to appraise the implementation of the universal basic education, gender equity and women empowerment policy, and statement of millennium development goals in Lagos state.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study is significant because it intend to give expert opinion on the implementation of universal basic education bringing to fore, inequality of girls child enrolment, retention, completion and access to quality education.

In addition, it is also significant because it examine the level of disparity in the economic and political empowerment that exists between men and women.

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION

1. Is there any significant relationship between gender inequality and educational opportunities available for girl child?

2. Is there any significant relationship between gender inequality and economic opportunities available for women?

3. Is there any significant relationship between gender inequality and political opportunities available for women?

4. Is there any significant relationship between poor funding and implementation of universal basic education in Lagos state?

Is there any significant relationship between economic status of parent and girl child educational enrolment status of parent and girl child educational enrolment retention and completion?

1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The following hypotheses will be tested:

1. There is no significant relationship between gender inequity and educational opportunities available for the girl-child

2. There is no significant relationship between gender inequity and economic opportunity available for women.

3. Funding of Universal Basic Education has led to less focuses by implementation.

4. There is no significant relationship between poor funding and the implementation of universal basic education.

5. There is no significant relationship between economic status of parent and girl child education enrolment, retention and completion.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS

APPRAISAL: Giving an expert opinion on value or cost of an issue even etc

IMPLEMENTATION: To carry out a given task or an assignment.

U.B.E: Universal Basic Education

GENDER EQUALITY: Girls/Women having the same rights and opportunity in life as boys/men

M.D.G: millennium development goals

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: A process of transforming gender through groups or individuals developing awareness of women’s subordination and building their capacities to challenge it.

1.8 DELIMITATION

This study will be carried in Bariga Local Government area of Lagos state. Also, the findings of this study will be generated to state other local government areas of the state

1.9 LIMITATION

Lack of time, Poor road network, Lack of fund, need for reliable accurate data, are notable limitations of this study,

1.10 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

The following terms and acronyms are operationally defined for this study:

APPRAISAL: Giving an expert opinion on value or cost of an issue even etc

IMPLEMENTATION: To carry out a given task or an assignment.

U.B.E: Universal Basic Education

GENDER EQUALITY: Girls/Women having the same rights and opportunity in life as boys/men

M.D.G: millennium development goals

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: A process of transforming gender through groups or individuals developing awareness of women’s subordination and building their capacities to challenge it.