Appraisal of the Right to Humanitarian Intervention in International Law

THE RIGHT TO HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION IN INTERNATIONAL LAW: LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

  • AU – African Union
  • CFRN – Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • ICC – International Criminal Court
  • ICJ – International Court Of Justice
  • ICRC – International Committee of the Red Cross or Red Crescent
  • ICTR  – International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
  • ICTY – International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia
  • OAS – Organization of American States
  • UN –  United Nations
  • UNSC – United Nations Security Council
  • UDHR – Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • IHL – International Humanitarian Law
  • HR –  Human Rights
  • USA – United States of America
  • USSR – Union of Soviet Socialist Republic
  • UNDU – United Nations Detention Unit
  • ECOMOG –  Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group
  • ECOWAS – Economic Community of West African States
  • R2P –  Right to Protect
  • ICISS – International Commission on Intervention and States Sovereignty
  • NATO – North Athletic Treaty Organization
  • UNOCI – UN Operation in Cote d’Ivorie
  • UNMISS – United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in South Sudan
  • UNGA – United Nations General Assembly

TABLE OF CASES

Advisory Opinion the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, ICJ
Reports, 1996 13,16
Athens Maritime Enterprise Corporation v. Hellenic Mutual War Risk Association
(1983) 1 All ER 590; 78 ILR 35
Austro-German Customs Union Case PCIJ, A/B, No 41, 1931 52
Corfu Channel, International Court of Justice, 1949 73
Island of Palmas Case’ (The Netherlands v. United States of America), Arbitral
Award, 4 April 1928, AJIL, 22(1928) 51
Naulilaa Case 29, 30, 31
Nicaragua Merits, ICJ Reports, June 27(1986) 27
Prosecutor v. Kupreskic et al. (IT-95-16-T), Judgment, 14 January, 2000 34
Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, ICC-01/04-01/06 24
The Caroline affair 32 AJIL, 1938 26,74
The North Sea Continental Shelf Cases, ICJ Reports, 1960 50

TABLE OF STATUTES/ COVENANTS
African Union Constitutive Act
Article 4(h) 63
American Restatement of International Law 1965
Brian – Kellog Pect 1928 7,8
Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 (as amended)
Section
1(3) 62
34 14

Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal 1945
Article
6 18,20
Covenant of the League of Nations 7

Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly and Co-operation
among States 1970 52,54
Draft Declaration on the Rights and Duties of States 51
General Assembly Resolutions
1236 (XII) 55
1301 (XIII) 55
377(V) 61
Geneva Convention of 1864 10,15
Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Wounded and Sick in Armed
Forces in the Field (Geneva Convention I)
Articles
2 16
7 17
8 17

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked
Members of the Armed Forces at Sea (Geneva Convention II)
Articles
2 16
7 17
8 17
Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (Geneva Convention III)
Articles
2 16
7 17
8 17
127 17
Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (Geneva Convention IV)
Articles
2 16
8 17
9 17
144 17

Geneva Convention on the High Seas 1958
Articles
15 35
19 35
13 36
3 36
23 36
Genocide Convention 1948
Article
1 73
2

Hague Convention IV and Regulations on the Laws and Customs of War on Land, 1907

Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 7,8
Limburg Principles on the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights, 1987
Article
3 11

Maastricht Guidelines on Violations of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1997
Article
4 1
Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States 1933
Article
1
North Atlantic Treaty
Article
5 28,64
Organization of American States Charter
Articles
3(g)) 63
19 63
Protocol additional to the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (Geneva Convention IV) (Protocol I) (relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts)
Articles
1(2) 16
20 17
51(6) 17
83 17
90 18
Protocol additional to the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (Geneva Convention IV) (Protocol II) (relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts)
Article
19 17
Regional Co-operation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ship in Asia, 2005 35
Saavedra-Lamas Treaty of 1933 18

Statute of International Court of Justice
Article
38(1) 11,19
Statute of International Criminal Court
Articles
6 24
7 24
8 24
25 16
28 16

Statute of International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Articles
Articles
2 24
3 24
4 24
Statute of International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia
Articles
4 24
5 24
6 24
United Nations Charter
Articles
2(3) 71
2(4) 2,3,13,27,71,72,73,74,75,77,78,79,80
2(7) 1,58
10 61
14 61
20 62
23 28
24 57,72
25 58,60
34 62
35 62
39 58,59,72,75
41 59,60
42 2,59,60,71,72
43 60
51 2,3,12,27,712,74,75
52 62
53 3,62
55(c)) 72
103 58,62,64
Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 9,15
United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea1982
Articles
99 36
101 35
105 35
106 36
110 36
111 36

United Nations Security Council Resolutions
54 58
217 58
221 58
487 26,74
660 60
678 60
713 59
733 59
748 59
788 59
808 13
815 59
823 13
827 21,23
955 22,23,59
1070 59
1270 59
1674 43
1706 43
1970 43
1973 43
1975 44
1996 44
2014 4
Versailles Treaty of Peace 1919 52
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969)
Vienna Declarations and Programme of Action on Human Rights
Article
5 11
Westphalia Treaty of 1648 3,5,6,11,12,19,50
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Table of Abbreviations v
Table of Cases vi
Table of Statutes vii
Table of Contents xii
Abstract xv
CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Research Questions 4
1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study 4
1.5 Research Methodology 4
1.6 Significance of the Research 5
1.7 Scope of the Study 5
1.8 Literature Review 6

CHAPTER TWO: CONCEPT OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW
2.1 Development of International Humanitarian Law 13
2.2 Scope of Protection Under International Humanitarian Law 16
2.3 Enforcement of Humanitarian Law 17
2.4 International Criminal Tribunals 18
2.4.1 Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals 20
2.4.2 International Criminal Tribunal For Former Yugoslavia 21
2.4.3 International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda 22
2.4.4 International Criminal Court 23

CHAPTER THREE: USE OF FORCE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW
3.1 Selfdefence 26
3.2 Retorsion/Counter-measure 28
3.3 Reprisals 29
3.4 Piracy 34
3.5 The Slave Trade 35
3.6 Hot Pursuit 36
3.7. Armed/Humanitarian Intervention 38
3.8 The Responsibility to Protect 41

CHAPTER FOUR: STATE SOVEREIGNTY AND HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION
4.1 State Sovereignty and Principle of Non-Intervention 49
4.1.1 Sovereignty (Independence) 51
4.1.2 Right to Equality 54
4.1.3 Right to Peaceful Co-Existence 55
4.2 Concept and Nature of Humanitarian Intervention 55
4.2.1 Multilateral Intervention under the United Nations 58
4.2.2 Multilateral Intervention under Regional Authority 62
4.2.3 Unilateral Humanitarian Intervention 64
4.3 Conditions for the Exercise of Humanitarian Intervention in International Law 68
4.4 Humanitarian Intervention and Article 2(4) of the UN Charter 71

CHAPTER FIVE: FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Findings 77
5.2 Recommendations 78
5.3 Conclusion 80
Bibliography 82

ABSTRACT

Intervention in the internal affairs of sovereign states by other sovereign state(s) is one of the “trending” issues in international law today. The issue is so because of the rising concept of the universality of human rights with the world shrinking into a single global community. International law and relations has from the time of the Westphalia Treaty of 1648 held the concept of sovereignty and its twin feature of equality of states and the principle of non-interference in high regard. Until recently, the concept of sovereignty has long been regarded as the bedrock of international relations. However, the doctrine of humanitarian intervention allows state(s) to intervene in the domestic affairs of sovereign states in the event of massive human rights violations, usually in the form of genocide, crime against humanity and war crimes. Humanitarian intervention is a controversial concept in international law. It is not provided for by the United Nations Charter as it neither constitutes a legitimate use of force authorized by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) nor the use of force in self-defense. Article2(4) of the United Nations Charter clearly prohibits the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state. However, since the creation of the United Nations Organization in 1945, there have been many instances of intervention on humanitarian grounds and the practice has vigorously resurged after the cold war. This study considers the meaning of humanitarian intervention as well as the legal basis of the doctrine. The study will review some cases of humanitarian intervention so as to ascertain whether or not there is presently a right to humanitarian intervention in international law and finally make suggestions for the future of the doctrine. This study posits that the right to humanitarian intervention is legal both at the Pre-UN days and survives even the UN as a form of customary international law, not based on treaty law.