APPRAISAL OF SELECTED POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
Poverty is one of the forces militating against the social and economic development of Nigeria. The level of poverty in Nigeria is astronomically high and politically embarrassing considering the enormous human and natural resources the country is endowed with and despite the huge resources, successive government have committed to alleviate to or eradicate poverty, it seems no success have achieved.
This paper therefore examines the strategies that have been adopted by the various governments to alleviate the poverty in Nigeria. These include Operation Feed the Nation, Green Revolution, Family Economic Advancement Programme, Poverty Alleviation Programme. The study reveals among other that all the poverty alleviation programme, have not been successful due to inadequate funding, lack of proper coordination and commitments, poor design and evaluation of programmes etc.
The paper recommends that government should ensure that programme of poverty alleviation are well designed, evaluated and co-ordinated before they are carried out, fraudulent officials should be prosecuted to serve as deterrent to others handling poverty alleviation programmes and so on.
Table of Content
Table Of Content
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
1.3 Statement Of Hypothesis
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance Of The Study
1.6 Limitations Of The Study
1.7 Scope Of The Study
1.8 Definition Of Terms
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Institutional Framework Of Poverty Alleviation
2.2 Tackling Poverty
2.3 Early Attempts At Poverty Alleviation
2. 4 Containing Rural Poverty
2.5 Poverty And Development- The Nigerian Factor
2.6 Poverty Alleviation Prgrammes In Nigeria
2.6.1 The Green Revolution In Nigeria
2.6.2 Policy On Green Revolution
2.6.3 Implementation Strategy For The Green Revolution
2.7 Directorate Of Food ,Roads And Rural Infrastructure(Dfrri)
2.7.1 Policy On Dfrri
2.7.2 Implemetation Strategy
2.8 Better Life Programme In Nigeria (Blp)
2.8.1 Strategy For Implementation
2.9: The Family Support Programme In Nigeria (Fsp)
2.9.1 Objectives And Aims Of The Family Support Programme (Fsp)
2.9.2: Strategy For Implementation Of Fsp Programme
2.10: National Directorate Of Employment (Nde)
2.11: National Economic Empowerment And Development Strategy (Needs)
2.12 Current Efforts At Poverty Alleviation
2.13 The Poverty Alleviation Programme (Pap)
2.14 The National Poverty Eradication Programme (Napep)
2.15 National Resource Development And Conservation Scheme (Nrdcs):
2.16: Problems Of Poverty Alleviation Programmes In Nigeria
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 Research Design
3.1: Sources Of Data
3.2: Method Of Data Collection
3.3: Model Specification
3.4 Method Of Data Analysis
3.5 Test Of Significance
4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1: Presentation Of Data And Data Analysis
4.2 Discussion Of Finding
4.3 Test Of Hypothesis
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Poverty in Nigeria is the prevalent because more than half of Nigerians live below poverty line of one dollar per day going by the united nation standard. This has necessitated the introduction of several poverty alleviation programmes both by the government and non government organization to properly address the issue of poverty in the country. It is to this extend that this research work seeks to properly identify and analysis the causes of poverty and access the various impact of poverty alleviation programmes and also examine the problems hindering the proper implementation of the various problem alleviation schemes.
The history of poverty alleviation programme is very wide due to its vastness. It is believed that there is no general consensus of any single definition of what it amounts to what can be called poverty. This cannot be connected to the fact that poverty affects many aspects of human condition which can be physical, moral and psychological.
Poverty is universal problem facing making with serious consequences. It can be described as a multi- dimensional phenomenon which lacks universally accepted definition. For instance, its economic dimensions, and centres on nature and level of material deprivations which afflict the poor and distinguish them from the non-poor.
According to the Encyclopedia America, Poverty is viewed from twSo different perspectives as signifying” molessness and powerlessness”. Morelessness means not merely an insufficiency of cash but chronic inadequacy of resources of all types to meet basic human need as nutrition, rest, shelter, etc. and powerlessness refers to those people who lack the opportunity and choices and whose live seems to be controlled by forces and persons outside their control- maybe people in position of authority or perceived evil forces or ill-luck.
As there are varying divergent views on the concept of poverty, we could observe that poverty exists when people lack the means to satisfy their basic needs. In Africa, and in particular Nigeria, the colonialist imposed capitalistic economic system which allowed for exploitation and domination of the rich individuals and companies in the available resources including exploiting the labours of other to increase their wealth.
Furthermore, the lack of commitments and focused leadership at all government daily eroded values systems and impoverished the people to the extent of the deprivations, prevalent hunger, disease, poverty and death in infrastructural development and amenities.
As a result of increasing agitations by the people for better conditions and welfare, the social cries and strife ensuring, coupled with the threat of sanction from the international community, Nigeria political leaders and their government admittedly recognized the need for improving the living standard of people as a sine- quo- non for peace and harmony.
In those regards, the federal government of Nigeria had designed several programmes aimed at alleviating poverty and improving the living condition of its people. Some of these programmes include:
Operation Feed The Nation (OFN)
Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP)
National Directorate of Nigeria (NDE)
Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP)
National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP)
National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS)
All there are geared towards raising the living standards of the rural people and the urban dwellers with the anticipated peace, harmony and development resulting thereafter.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The Nigeria state had been hit by the twin problems of poverty and underemployment. This may be attributed to a number of factors, some of which are mismanagement of human and material resources, indiscipline, and lack of political will by the government of the country beginning from the post- independence and present day Nigeria. Rather than tackle development and poverty alleviation in the society, our policy makers or if you like politicians has appeared to have converted leadership positions and public office into avenues of embezzlement, corruption, money laundering abroad to the neglect of the suffering people and development.
This research therefore identified the problems and consequences of poverty and under development on a developing economy like Nigeria Thus:
a. Poverty has become a feature of the living conditions and life situation of the vast majority of Nigerians i.e. most Nigerians live in poverty.
b. In all respects for which comparative data is available, the poverty situation in Nigeria is only slightly better than what obtains in sub- Sahara Africa as a whole and generally worse than what obtain in low-income economies.
c. Certain section of the population has been particularly vulnerable to poverty and continues to bear most of the suffering associated with the savage e.g. farmers and other rural dwellers.
d. Poverty give birth to many other serious social problems, some of which not only imposed enormous
Economic and social costs upon the non-poor and society in general, but also theater the survival and stability of the society.
1.3 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis form the basis upon which this research study was undertaken:
i. HO: There is no relationship between the various poverty alleviation of the government and its impact on the people of the country.
ii. HO: There is no significance relationship between socio- economic condition on the country and sustainable nation- development.
iii. HO: There is no relationship between public policies and poverty alleviation in Nigeria.
iv. HO: There is no significant relationship between the social vices and poverty alleviation in the country.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research sought to provide answers to the following
a. What impact has the various poverty alleviation programme made on the lives of rural dwellers?
b. What poverty alleviation programme package would best be suited and easily implementable at the rural level where the majority of the Nigerians lives?
c. What I the linkage between poverty alleviation programme living condition of the people and rural development? What other factors affects rural development and rural/ urban poverty?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In view of the fact that there has been growing skepticism about the success of the poverty alleviation schemes, the researcher believes that a study of this nature will contribute to knowledge by revealing the truth and clear the doubt usually expressed on the performance of the schemes. The research study explores the whole concept of development and poverty, causes the in sequences of poverty and inequality and how best to tackle the problems which poverty and underdevelopment had created.
Researchers and social scientist are likely to find this study exciting especially with the novel concept of bottom- Top policy design and implemented strategy enunciated. Furthermore, this study would provide the required clues for government to tackle the poverty problems at the root.
On a general note, a study of this kind tend to reveal the extent of success and failure of the programmes and further give suggestions on ho the poverty alleviation schemes can be meaningful so that Nigerians can benefit and lead a worthy life.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In the course of carrying out this study, a number of constraints were encountered such as:
a. Much time `was spent on carrying out this research study from the printing and distribution of questionnaire to the target population rather than whole population which was difficult to do.
b. Funding: carrying out this research involves a lot of money. This includes travelling from one town to the other gathering vital data for the study. Money was expended on the printing of questionnaire, typesetting and binding of the research work into a booklet.
c. Respondents: The researcher was faced with the problems of some respondents not cooperating fully in providing answers to the questionnaire, seeing the exercise as an unnecessary distraction from their business. There were also the problems of some respondents having misconception about the whole exercise because they thought providing certain information about them on issues was going to implicate them.
d. Materials: The availability of some vital materials for the study was not without difficulties. Vital documents like journals, literature and other relevant sources of secondary data collection were encountered with some degree of hardship. Accessing the internet for vital and relevant data was also not easy.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covers rural areas known for their poverty proneness, government agencies concerned with poverty alleviation and rural development, such government agencies includes Community Banks, Rural Development Banks, National Poverty Eradicate Programme (NAPED) etc.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Some terminologies and concepts were used during the course of this research and for proper paraphrasing such terms have been explained thus:
Poverty: Poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon. This definition was captured by chambers (1983) and more recently by Jazairy et al (1992:56). It is the lack of the minimum physical requirements of a person or a household for existence.
Development: Walter Rodney defined development as a many sided process. If the level of individuals, it implies increased skill and capacity, greater freedom, creativity, self discipline, responsibilities and material well being.
NAPED: This refers to the National Poverty Eradication Programme. It is a poverty alleviation measured set up by the Obasanjo regime to cushion the economic hardship in the country.
FEAD: This refers to the Family Economic Advancement Programme. It is an investment promotion and Poverty Alleviation Programme introduced by the federal government for the purpose of stimulating appropriate economic activities in the various wards of each local government area in the country I order to raise the productivity and economic power of the people through the establishment of viable resources based industries.
NEEDS: National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy. This is the latest concept at packaging a holistic approach to restoring Nigeria on the path of economic, social and political prosperity.
NDE: National Directorate of Employment. This programme was set up by the Nigerian empowerment
NEPA: National Electric Power Authority. This is an authority established by the federal government of Nigeria, charged with the generation and distribution of electricity in Nigeria.