APPRAISING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ICT USAGE AND INTEGRATION IN SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION AND INSTRUCTION IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ABSTRACT

The study attempted to examine the appraisal of the relationship between ICT usage and integration in Social Studies Education and instruction in some selected secondary schools in Lagos State. In this study, relevant and extensive literature was reviewed under subheadings. The survey research design was used to assess responses of the selected respondents, with the application of the questionnaire and the sampling technique. A total of 50 (fifty) respondents were selected and used for this study, which represented the bulk of the population. Three (3) null hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study, using the Pearson product moment correlation statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance. At the end of the analyses, the following findings were obtained:

(i) Hypothesis one found that there is a significant relationship between social studies teachers’ ICT awareness and teachers’ experiences in the schools.

(ii) Hypothesis two revealed that there is a significant relationship between social studies teachers’ ICT integration and the academic qualification of teachers in schools.

(iii) Finally, hypothesis three indicated that there is no gender difference in teachers’ performance due to ICT usage in the school.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Information Communication Technology (ICT) has proved to be a catalyst to fundamental changes in the world’s economies and societies. It creates more avenues to earn income, allows access to useful information, enhances the world of work and makes the world a global village. The ICT industry spans broadcast, electronics and print media, computers, telecommunications and e-commerce activities. As put forward by Oyeyinka et al in 2007, ICT infrastructure is made up of all physical facilities and technologies engaged in delivering and disseminating information and communication services in telecommunications, broadcasting, cable television service, postal service, publishing, education, printing, computer networks, and a wide range of terminal equipment. The minimum composition of an ICT infrastructure that would bring about social and industrial development include: a functional telecommunications network with voice, data and video transmission to enable an information base that is adequately networked; local production of ICT equipment and materials; a pool of human resources with capacity in telecommunications and other related aspects of the rapidly growing ICT industry; and software development and production of information technology (IT) and its applications in area of education that includes teachers training programme and its usage in classroom situation.

Preparing teachers to be proficient in ICT usage is a key issue for the field of education. While many states will scramble to fill as many as two million teaching positions in the next few years, the public expects teachers to be able to integrate technology into their instructional strategies. New technologies are disseminated into our nation’s schools at a rapid rate. To utilize these technologies effectively, teachers need not only to be proficient in technology but also well versed in the effective integration of technology into their instruction. The key in meeting this expectation is the teacher preparation programmes.

Improving the quality of education through the diversification of contents and methods and promoting experimentation, innovation, the diffusion and sharing of information and best practices as well as policy dialogue are UNESCO’s strategic objectives in Education (UNESCO, 2002). This is because information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become key tools and had a revolutionary impact of how we see the world and how we live in it. This phenomenon has given origin to the contemporary and advances in our ways of life. ICT is having a revolutionary impact on educational methodology globally. However, this revolution is not widespread and need to be strengthened to reach a large percentage of the population. In a complex society like Nigeria, many factors affect its ICTs use and integration, so an interdisciplinary and integrated approach is therefore very necessary to ensure the successful development of Nigeria’s economy and society (Mac-Ikemenjima, 2005).

The academic landscape in Nigeria includes the teaching and learning process, along with the educational programmes and courses and the pedagogy or methodology of teaching; the research process, including dissemination and publication; libraries and information services; including higher education administration and management (Beebe, 2004). The integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in higher education programmes and especially in social studies has been the topic of a good deal of debate. ln Nigeria, the relationship between the development of ICTs penetration and use in teacher education programs and its diffusion into the programmes in Faculties of Education and Schools of Education is dependent upon governmental policies. (Beebe, 2004)

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are indispensable and have been accepted as part of the contemporary world especially in the industrialized societies. In fact, cultures and societies have adjusted to meet the challenges of the knowledge age. The pervasiveness of ICT has brought about rapid changes in technology, social, political, and global economic transformation. However, the field of education has not been unaffected by the penetrating influence of information and communication technology. Unquestionably, ICTs has impacted on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning, and research in teacher education. Therefore, ICT provides opportunities for student teachers, academic and non-academic staff to communicate with one another more effectively during formal and informal teaching and learning (Yusuf, 2005b, pp. 316-321). In the same vein, teachers need training not only in computer literacy but also in the application of various kinds of educational software in teaching and learning (Ololube, 2006).

Furthermore, they need to learn how to integrate ICTs into their classroom activities and school structure. The quality of teachers is known in virtually all countries to be a key predictor of student learning (Ololube, 2005a; 2005b). Therefore, teacher training is crucial using ICTs, because ICTs are tools that on the one hand can facilitate teacher training and on the other hand help them to take full advantage of the potential of technology to enhance student learning (UNESCO, 2003). Correspondingly, ICTs have introduced a new era in traditional methods of teaching and offering new teaching and learning experiences to both teachers and students. Hence, Nigerian education environment should take advantage of this capability to provide easy access of information, since technologies enable the visualization of educational materials in an innovative and realistic manner.

1.2 Statement of Problem

There has been a precarious relationship between social studies education and technology. While some educators have been fascinated by the potentials of technology to enhance teaching and learning, many schools have lagged behind in assimilating technology into instruction (Berson, 1996). Shaver (1999) expressed doubt that technology will ever incite instructional reform in the social studies education, and Pahl (1996) noted that social studies educators have been apprehensive about modifying instruction to incorporate technology. This lingering apprehension has led some researchers to conclude that social studies instruction has not appreciably changed as a result of technology (Martorella, 1997; White, 1997).

If the above situation continues, it will invariably leads to a situation where their would be no opportunities for student, teachers, academic and non-academic staff to communicate with one another more effectively during formal and informal teaching and learning. Therefore, this research is set to determine the extent of social studies teachers’ exposure to ICT usage and how schools and teachers have been able to integrate technology into their activities

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is appraising the relationship between ICT usage and integration in social studies education and instruction in some selected secondary schools in Lagos. Specifically the study will;

1. Determine the extent of Social Studies teachers’ awareness of ICT for Social studies instruction

2. Determine the level of ICT integration into Social Studies education

3. Investigate how Social Studies teachers are using technology in their instruction

4. Determine the competence of social studies teachers in the use of technology in their instruction.

1.4 Research Questions

In order to understand the relationship between technology innovation and social studies education, this research focuses on the use of technology in Social Studies instruction. This survey research addresses the following questions:

2. What is the level of ICT awareness of Social Studies teachers in schools?

3. To what extent do social studies teachers currently integrate technology into their instruction?

4. In what ways are Social Studies teachers using technology in their instruction?

5. What is the level of teacher’s competence in the use of ICT in Social studies instruction?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

1. There is no significant difference in Social Studies teachers ICT awareness based on gender, years of teaching experience and academic qualification

2. There is no significant difference in Social Studies teachers ICT integration based on gender, years of teaching experience and academic qualification.

3. There is no significant difference in Social Studies teachers’ level of technology use based on gender, years of teaching experience and academic qualification.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The research results will have implications for future policy regarding technology training of teachers and the development of strategic plans aimed at encouraging technology-based innovation in teacher instructional methods and particularly in Social Studies education

1.7 Scope of the Study

This study appraises the relationship between ICT usage and integration in social studies education and instruction in some selected secondary schools in Lagos state 1.8 Limitation of the Study This research will be limited to five junior secondary schools in Ajeromi- Ifelodun Local Government area in Lagos state because there will not be enough time and resources to covers all the junior secondary schools in Lagos state

1.9 Definition of Terms Used in the Study

For the purpose of clarity and to avoid ambiguity, some of the terms that are used in the study are defined operationally below:

Technology: Technology in this study refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems. It also refers to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware, software, systems, methods of organization and techniques ((The American Heritage® Dictionary of the

English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2007 published by Houghton Mifflin Company.

Innovation: The term is used in the study to refer to both radical and incremental changes to ICT products and processes. In the organizational context, innovation is linked to performance and growth through improvements in efficiency, productivity, quality, competitive positioning, market share, etc. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

ICT: ICT Generally referred to as Information Communication Technology and includes all electronic technologies and equipment used in facilitating information processing and communication. ( (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Instruction: In education, instruction is define as the act of teaching according to Advanced Learner’s Dictionary,8th edition