APPRENTICESHIP SYSTEM AND INCREASE IN PERSONNEL SERVICES OF TECHNICAL TEACHERS
The study examined the influence of apprenticeship on the productivity of technical teachers in selected secondary schools in Lagos State. Specifically, the study sets out to investigate the influence of staff training programmes on learning achievement of students and apprenticeship impact on technical teachers’ productivity. Four research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. Relevant literatures were reviewed among which are concept of apprenticeship and development and identifying training needs. A descriptive research design was adopted for the study and the population were technical teachers in secondary schools in Mainland Local Education District III area of Lagos State. Stratified random technique was used to get 120 technical teachers from six schools in the district. Questionnaire was used for data collection, which was validated and its reliability ascertained. The data collected were analysed using t-test method of statistics analysis. The major findings of the study are: apprenticeship influences technical teachers’ productivity in secondary schools; differences exists between the productivity of technical teachers who are exposed to training and those who are not and also that difference exists between the orientation of experienced teachers as a result of exposure to training and those inexperienced. The study concluded by recommending among others that adequate training should be given for all stakeholders in the educational institutions so as to enable efficient discharge of duties.
1.1 Background to the Study
Training has been defined as “an organised procedure by which people learn knowledge and or skills for a definite purpose”. It is a process for equipping the employee particularly the non-management employee with specific skills e.g. technical skills like plumbing, electrical wiring, repairing, artistic skills, clerical and typing skills that would enable them to improve on their performances and overall efficiency.
Gardner (1993), states that the objective of training is to enable employees to perform his/her job in such a way as to meet the standards of output, quality, waste control, safety and other operational requirements.
According to Adeleke (1990), for the fact that ours is a world that is currently undergoing rapid changes particularly in the area of skill obsolescence and technological capability, training is not exclusively reserved for newly employed staff but also for the old employees as well. It is therefore, for the purpose of enhancing individual performance that training and development should be made a continuous process that should last through an employees entire working life. This is because low and middle level employees need to adapt to new skills and technologies, while managers and top management personnel need deeper knowledge and understanding of their jobs, the jobs of others, a good understanding of where and how their jobs fit into the wider organisation pattern, an understanding of government and societal constraints, and a sensitive social awareness of the environment within which organisation or school operates (Adamson, 1994).
For jobs like teaching that requires complex and diverse range of skills and knowledge, a period of apprenticeship training is usually required. For example, in technical jobs such as carpentry, plumbing, printing, welding, engraving, tool making, and other jobs that require long period of practice and experience, apprenticeship programmes are necessary if the trainee is to fully grasp or understand the intricacies and complexities of the job. Besides, since training takes place over an extended period range of skills and knowledge, a period of apprenticeship training is usually required, for example, in technical jobs such as carpentry, plumbing, printing, welding, engraving, tool making, and other jobs that require long period of practice and experience, apprenticeship programmes are necessary if the trainee is to fully grasp or understand the intricacies and complexities of the job. Besides, since training takes place over an extended period of time, the distributed learning necessary to master such skills is able to take place. In addition, when apprenticeship programmes or training is well planned and operated, it permits the integration of the best features of on-the-job training and off-the-job training. It gives the apprentice an opportunity to earn something while learning, Banjoko (1996).
Ejiogu (1985) and Kerllenger (1981) are of the opinion that constant training or organisation of seminars, workshops and other courses for technical teachers would improve to a great extent, the effectiveness and efficiency of teachers’ productivity in the school environment. Teachers occupy a central position in harnessing the administrative and material resources necessary to blend with learners (students). A close look at the Nigerian schools, especially the public schools, one would find out that there exists a shortage of technical teachers in many primary and secondary schools. This is largely due to lack of job satisfaction as a result of poor conditions of service, lack of motivation, ineffectiveness on the job due to non-further training etc. In any case, this affects students’ academic performance (Gist, 1999).
According to Ejiogu (1996), for technical teachers to maximize their potentials or exhibit maximum effectiveness in their duties in the school system, constant staff training and development programmes must be put in place and these programmes must be geared towards the enhancement and improvement of teachers work performance which will also enhance the academic performance of students in the school environment.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
No doubt, staff development, especially the technical teachers, complements the learning achievement of the students in a given school system. It also increases the capacity utilization of manpower in an organization. Lack of apprenticeship or training, result to set back in learning, low productivity and inefficiency on the job.
In Nigeria today, both the private and public schools are bedevilled by the poor or inadequate staff development programmes. For example, the non-training of staff (the technical and non technical teachers, teaching and non teaching staff) in our school system, has caused ineffectiveness and unproductiveness of the technical teachers and often, teachers in general.
In a school where the staff are not constantly developed through seminars, workshops, in-house training or in-service training to develop their working skills, there will be poor teaching and learning process and this will no doubt, affect students’ learning process.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The objectives of the study among others are:
1. Finding out whether staff training programmes will influence learning achievement of students.
2. Finding out whether apprenticeship will affect the productivity of technical teachers in the school.
3. Whether there is a difference between the productivity of staff who are constantly trained and those who are not.
4. Finding out whether there is difference between the orientation of staff who are trained and the untrained ones.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions will be answered in this study:
1. Does staff training programme enhance students’ academic achievement?
2. Will apprenticeship affect the productivity of technical teachers in the school?
3. Is there any difference between the productivity of technical teachers who are constantly trained and those who are not?
4. Will there be any difference between the orientation of technical teachers who are trained and those who are not?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses will be formulated in this study:
1. There will be no significant influence of apprenticeship on the productivity of technical teachers.
2. There will be no significant difference between the productivity of technical teachers who are exposed to training and those who are not.
3. There will be no significant difference between orientation of technical teachers who are constantly trained and those who are not.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of great benefit to the following people:
1. The Technical Teacher: The teacher will no doubt benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study, in that, it will help him to be acquainted with the essence of apprenticeship or the importance of training which helps individuals to be skillful and productive as well.
2. Students: Students would benefit from this study because it will enable them to imbibe the culture of training as a tool for human growth and development, and as a tool for maximum productivity and effectiveness.
3. The School Authority: With this study, the school authority will be abreast with the importance of exposing teachers, especially, the technical ones to training and retraining so as to avail them the opportunities of being productive and efficient in their duties.
4. Government: The government, with the findings, and recommendations of this study, will make education policies that will help the educational system in Nigeria especially the training of technical teachers. This will go a long way in making our greater tomorrows, the youths, technological inclined, especially in this era of science and technology driven society.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study covers the examination of apprenticeship system and increase in personnel services of technical teachers in Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
This study was constrained by finance, time, sourcing of relevant materials and logistic issues which affected the timely completion of the work.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Operational terms were defined in this study thus:
(1) Apprentice: Learner of a trade who has agreed to work for a number of years in return for being taught.
(2) Apprenticeship: A period of time in which work is learnt.
(3) Personnel Staff: Persons employed in any work especially public undertakings and the armed forces.
(4) Equipment: Supply a person with something that is needed for a purpose. Collective thing needed for a purpose.
(5) Equilibrium: State of being balanced; scales on a balance.
(6) Environment: Surroundings, circumstances and influences.
(7) Management: Managing or being managed, skilful treatment, delicate contrivance etc.
(8) Technical Teachers: Teachers who teach or impart technical skills to the learners in order to make them become technically inclined.
(9) Train: Train somebody for something in order to be somebody or something; the act of giving teaching and practice to a child, a soldier, an animal in order to bring to a directed standard of behaviour, efficiency or physical condition.