ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IN PRINTING INDUSTRY
The international Association for impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as “the process identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made. Atmospheric composition affects air quality, weather, climate, and critical constituents such as ozone and aerosols which in turn have effect on printed product. Atmospheric composition is central to earth system dynamics, since the atmosphere integrates surface emissions globally on time scales from weeks to years and involves several environmental issues.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Outdoor printed product diminishes in ink content, degree value and contrast over time due to the several environmental and atmospherically conditions or effects on the ink.
The atmosphere of earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet earth that is retained by earth’s gravity. The atmosphere protects life on earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heart relention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).
The common name given to the atmospheric gases used in breathing and photosynthesis is air. By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, (i) 0.93% argon, 0.039% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases, thus invariably the composite elements of air. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapour, on average around 1%.
Considering the atmospheric constituents of chemicals and which results to several radiation and reactions against constituent chemicals of a printed product hence the study “ASSESSING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT IN PRINTING INDUSTRY”.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In complacent agreement with the background above it is quite obvious and evident that lack of adequate information and knowledge in printing material (substrate) paper, ink and their formulations in relation to their environment is prevalent in most developing countries of the world. As a result of this lacuna in knowledge printers within the aforementioned sphere (the scope of our study) has concurrently suffered integrity and valued decadence from print buyers and consumers at large, even the researcher of this project has suffered integrity damage due to light fastness.
A large portion of the industry is yet to have adequate comprehensiveness as regarding printed products in relation to their environment.
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The issue which arises from this study is to unveil empirical facts which would be basses for adequate comprehension of the relationship of any print product and the environment. This assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the relevant environmental impacts when deciding about print projects.
Specifically, this study is aimed at
- Discussing ink formulation
- Printing, as it relates to environmental conditions.
- The concept “LIGHT FASTNESS” (how fast a colorant fades when exposed to light).
- Atmospheric effects on printed product most especially outdoor prints.
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY
The content of this study is strictly limited to the ink and printed material in relation to its environment. This study is a thesis majority concentrated on the aforementioned purpose.