ASSESSING THE OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS OF PRIVATE BROADCASTING MEDIA IN NIGERIA
The topic of this research work, assessing the operational problems of private broadcasting media in Nigeria is self emphatic and the research focus on the private broadcasting media of Umuahia North, Abia State Nigeria. Private broadcasting media depends to a large extent on the government and the private media owners reason that the government who deregulated broadcasting media and set up (NBC) in decree 38 of 1992 who are in-charge of the private broadcasting media licensing renewal, and revocation should endavour to see that it thrives well also the private media owners should make efforts to see they avoid any form of operational problem. So in order for there to be progressive operation in private broadcasting media there is need to identify and curb various operational problems militating against private broadcasting media organizations in the country.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Approval page i
Table of content iv
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of problems 5
1.3 Objective of the study 6
1.4 Significant of the study 7
1.5 Research questions 8
1.6 Limitation of the study 8
1.7 Scope of the Study 9
1.8 Definition of Terms 9
LITERATURE REVIEW 11
2.1 Literature Review 11
2.2 Trends in Newspaper Coverage of Sports in Nigeria 14
2.3 An overview of Nigeria Sports 22
2.4 Problems of Nigerian Sports 24
2.5 Roles of the Press in Tackling the Problem 27
2.6 Theoretical Framework 29
2.7 Summary of literature review 32
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 33
3.1 Research design and Method of study 33
3.2 Population of the study 33
3.3 Design of the study 23
3.4 Sampling techniques 36
3.5 Instrument for Data collection 36
3.6 Validation and reliability of Data Source 36
3.7 Method of Data analysis 37
Data Presentation, Analysis and discussion 38
4.1 Data presentation and analysis 38
4.2 Discussion of findings 44
Summary, conclusion and Recommendations 47
5.1 Summary of findings 47
5.2 Conclusion 48
5.3 Recommendations 50
5.4 Area of further study 52
1.1 Background of the Study
Broadcasting is a global phenomenon. As an essential aspect of any nation’s social and cultural life, its significance cannot be over emphasized. Combining audio, vision and motion the broadcast media effectiveness in communicating information with speed and accuracy to heterogeneous audience has been proven over the years. However, in Nigeria for several decades following the inception of broadcasting in 1957 (Obazele, 1996), the industry led a sheltered life shielded from the winds, the free market forces as successive regimes ensured that the sector remained an exclusive monopoly of the central government. Even the 1979 constitutional provision for the establishment of private electronic media could not change the trend.
Heralding the emergence of private broadcasting in Nigeria, to be or not to be generated diverse opinions. Some is of the thought that the best way to use the broadcast media as a facilitator of development is to have them owned and controlled by the government, others opined that the best result will be achieved by the private sector.
Against the background of the Nigeria public yearning for a greater variety in programming as well as alternative sources of information to the mainstream government controlled stations, the federal government during Babangida’s regime promulgated decree N0. 38 which liberalized the industry and also established the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC). This decree (38) of August 24 (1992) empowered the NBC to regulate the entire broadcast industry, both public and private.
This singular act by the Babangida’s military presidency eclipsed the over 50 years of sole government domination of the sector in Nigeria. The NBC’s major responsibilities are, insurance, renewal and revocation of licenses as well as setting and enforcement of standard in context and quality of programmes on Radio and Television etc.
As excepted the NBC has recorded some achievements, some of the first set of private broadcasting organization whose presidential approval secured by the NBC, had already begun full operation. These includes clapper board television Lagos, Minaj system television Obosi, Ray power in Lagos, Vision Africa Umuahia, and latter Family love Fm Umuahia.
In the light of the original blueprint of their establishment, the private broadcasting organization are expected to adhere to the regulatory broadcasting policies, codes and standard in the course of their operations towards attaining a set of predetermined goals laid down by the regulatory bodies such as NBC.
The deregulation of the broadcast industry which finally kicked off in May, 1993, with issuance of television and cable satellite redistribution licenses to private organizations saw DAAR communication Limited Lagos in 1992 emerge as the first recipient of the radio licenses (Guardian Oct. 1995).
Thus, a study directed towards examining or assessing the operational problems of private broadcasting media in Nigeria using Family Love Fm and Vision Africa Fm as a study, is a worthwhile exercise.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In view of this discussion, this study look at the operational problems of private broadcast media (radio) in Nigeria using Vision Africa 104.1 Fm and Family Love 103.9Fm Umuahia as a case study.
Most private broadcast media (radio) are faced with a lot of problems in their operation. This is so because, since they are not owned by the government and cannot serve as the mouth piece and to some extent, this affect them because, the government is not responsible for their finances they are only sponsored by their owners and incase of financial constraint, they will surely be affected.
Most private broadcasting media lack the tactics in the management of its staffs and resources available to them and this causes lack of commitment by its workers thereby causing more harm than good to the organization.
Most private broadcasting media are faced with impediments that lead to ineffective coverage which leads to distortions in their operation.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The research objective is not the problems of private broadcasting in Nigeria but these are the specific objectives which led to the main objective:
1. To know and identify the challenges and setbacks encountered by broadcasting organization.
2. To know if private ownership affects private broadcasting organizations from carrying out its duties effectively.
3. To know if there is any prospect for advancement and improvement of the private broadcasting organizations.
1.4 Research Questions/Hypotheses
These are the various research questions that guides this study:
1. What are the challenges and setbacks encountered by private broadcasting organizations?
2. To what extent does private ownership affect private broadcasting organizations from carryout its duties effectively?
3. Is there any prospect for advancement and improvement of the private broadcasting organizations?
1.5 Significance of the Study
These are the various significant of the study in broadcasting:
1. It provides insight into more effective broadcasting towards achieving the predetermined goals and obligation.
2. The research work is of benefit to students of mass communication, who are notably the future broadcasters who will definitely get to face the challenges faced by the private broadcasting organizations, as it lists out guides towards effective and result oriented broadcasting operations.
3. The research work can serve as a material for reference to individual in the field of broadcasting.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study examined the operational problems of private broadcasting media in Nigeria through a study of this nature sufficient validity.
The researcher will not find it easy to examine or assess every private broadcasting media in Nigeria because of certain factors such as home and finance, that is why this study is limited to Family Love Fm and Vision Africa Radio Stations Umuahia.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
A lot of problems were encountered in the course of carrying out this research work because of some reasons.
Financial constraints were the first consideration, due to the economy of the country presently transport fare has sky rocked and because of that the researcher is a student therefore could not afford it.
Also, the researcher also found it very hard to locate the place the stations are situated.
The researcher did not also have adequate time for more research to be done of the study because of he task of putting school activities and the research together.
1.8 Definitions of Terms
Broadcasting: The transmission of information ideas, issues, operations through air space by means of radio frequency of signals capable of being received aurally or visually or both by the general public.
Broadcast media: This consist of all radio and television stations owned and controlled by the government or individual and it can also be used in sending out programmes on radio or television to a large number of people in order to achieve information and entertainment dissemination.
Radio: It is an aural or audio medium and the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating some property of electromagnetically energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase or pulse width.
Operational problems: The difficulties encountered by the private broadcasting media in their operation or in the dissemination of news, entertainment and information.
Private Broadcast Media: It means those radio or television stations owned or belonging to one particular individual or a group only.