AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF FLOODING ON RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES (A CASE STUDY OF CALABAR SOUTH)

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed at examining the effects of flooding on residential properties in Calabar South Local government Area of Cross River State. The data needed for the study were obtained through the use of 250 questionnaires in four intensively flooded areas of the case study.However, the researcher also carried out physical observation the areas prone to flood and general discussions and interviews with the resident of these areas. Also both primary and secondary sources were used for data collection. This shows that flood has serious effects in residential properties and the residents in general. It then recommended that: all drainage systems within the study area must be cleared to ensure free flow of storm waters; the local planning authorities in the study area should ensure adequate sanctions for violations of building regulations as this will go a long way to curb the menace of flood in the affected areas.

LIST OF FIGURES

1. MAP OF NIGERIA SHOWING CROSS RIVER STATE

2. MAP OF CROSS RIVER STATE SHOWING CALABAR SOUTH L.G.A.

3. MAP OF CALABAR SOUTH SHOWING THE STUDY AREAS

4. PHOTOGRAPHS SHOWING AREAS WITHIN THE STUDY AREA THAT FLOOD OCCUR.

LIST OF TABLES

1. SEX OF RESPONDENTS.

2. AGES OF RESPONDENTS.

3. INCOME PER ANNUM OF RESPONDENTS.

4. SIZE OF HOUSEHOLD OF RESPONDENTS.

5. CAUSES OF FLOOD IN THE STUDY AREA.

6. DURATION OF FLOOD IN THE STUDY AREA.

7. AFFECTED HOUSES WITHIN THE AREA.

8. DISTRIBUTION OF RESIDENTS THAT RELOCATE WHEN FLOOD OCCURS.

9. NUMBER OF PROPERTIES DESTROYED IN THE 2011 FLOOD.

10. SUGGESTIONS GIVEN TO GOVERNMENT BY RESPONDENTS ON HOW TO CURB THE FLOOD MENACE.

TABLE OF CONTENT

PAGES

COVER PAGE………………………………………………………………i

TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………….ii

CERTIFICATION…………………………………………………………..iii

DEDICATION………………………………………………………………iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………..v

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………vi

LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………….vii

LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………ix

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………….1

1.1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY……………………………………….1

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM………………………………………4

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY……………………………..5

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY…………………………………………………5

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY………………………………………..6

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY………………………………………6

1.7 STUDY AREA…………………………………………………………….7

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………………10

2.1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………10

2.2 DEFINITIONS OF FLOOD………………………………………………17

2.3 CAUSES OF FLOOD…………………………………………………….18

2.4 EFFECTS OF FLOOD……………………………………………………23

2.5 MEASURES OF CURBING THE FLOOD MENACE………………….26

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…………………………………………30

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN……………………………………………………30

3.2 POPULATION……………………………………………………………30

3.3THE SAMPLE…………………………………………………………….30

3.4 SAMPLE TECHNIQUE…………………………………………………..31

3.5 INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION……………………………..31

3.6PROCEDURES FOR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS…..32

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA…33

4.1 DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS………………………………………….43

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS……….45

5.1SUMMARY……………………………………………………………….45

5.2 CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………45

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………………………46

REFERENCES………………………………………………………………..47

APPENDIX 1……………………………………………….51

APPENDIX 2