ASSESSMENT OF EUTROPHICATION LEVEL OF MUNICIPAL SURFACE WATER IN ABUJA NIGERIA
The level of some nutrient elements in Abuja surface water were investigated for six months to determine the eutrophication profile and make logical inference on the fate of surface water system in the nearest future. Samplings were done monthly for a period of six months covering October to March and standard methods were used for the measurement of some nutrients constituting the indices of eutrophication. The results showed high levels of microbial activities. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) showed high levels of pollution which varied with time and velocity of water current. Other parameters investigated were chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate concentration, total dissolved solid (TDS), conductivity, algae count, temperature, pH, phosphate and potassium concentrations. Maximum and minimum values of some eutrophication parameters in the sites were recorded as follows: BOD ( Orozo 38mg/L- 7.37mg/L, Gidan Mangoro 31.2mg/L- 5.08mg/L, Nyanya 32.4mg/L- 10.05mg/L, Wuse 40.30mg/L- 7.007mg/L, Jabi 26.50mg/L- 3.10mg/L). Similarly total dissolved solid maximum and minimum values in the sites were given as Orozo 1222mg/L- 105.1mg/L, Gidan Mangoro 861.0mg/L-148.8mg/L, Nyanya 676.0mg/L- 127.6mg/L, Wuse 200.0mg/L- 86.2mg/L, Jabi 846.0mg/L-151.8mg/L. These results point to eutrophication indicators in Abuja surface water system. The results showed that the concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium may be significantly increased beyond their compensation level by the growing human population in Abuja metropolis.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
Abbreviations, Definitions and Symbols
1.1 Causes of Eutrophication
1.1.1 Natural sources
1.1.2 Anthropogenic sources
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Aims And Objectives
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Factors Controlling Eutrophication
2.1.1 Algal bloom
2.1.2 Organic manure application
2.1.3 Water hyacinth invasion
2.1.4 Impact of erosion
2.2 Approaches to Controlling Eutrophication and Water Loss
2.2.1 Nutrient control
2.3 Urbanization and Eutrophication Profile
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Sampling Sites
3.2 Sample Collection and Preservation
3.3 Measurement of Physical Parameters
3.3.2 Measurement of total dissolved solid
3.3.3 Measurement of conductivity
3.3.4 Measurement of chemical oxygen demand (Titrimetric method)
3.3.5 Measurement of pH
3.3.6 Measurement of biological oxygen demand (Titrimetric method)
3.3.7 Measurement of potassium
3.3.8 Determination of nitrate (Colorimetric method)
3.3.9 Determination of phosphate
3.4 Principles of Operation of Colorimeter DR/890
5.1 BOD Concentrations
5.3 Total Dissolved Solid
5.4 Chemical Oxygen Demand
5.7 Algae Count
5.8 pH Level
6.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
ABBREVIATIONS, DEFINITIONS AND SYMBOLS
N – Nitrogen
P – Phosphorus
K – Potassium
Mg – Milligram
% – percent
DO – Dissolved oxygen
BOD – Biochemical Oxygen Demand
PO42 – Phosphate
NO3 – Nitrate
TDS – Total Dissolved Solid
µg – Microgram
NaOH – Sodium Hydroxide
HCl – Hydrochloric Acid
NH4VO3 – Ammonium Metavanadate
H2SO4 – Tetraoxosulphate (VI) Acid
KH2PO4 – Anhydrous Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate
mg/L – milligram per liter
NIMET – Nigerian Meteorological Agency
COD – Chemical Oxygen Demand
GIS – Geographical Information System
ANOVA – Analysis of Variance
Eutrophication is the natural process whereby a confined water body (e.g. lake or dam) ages with time due to accumulation of silt or organic matter in the lake (Ademoroti, 1996).
A young lake is characterized by low nutrient level and consequently low plant productivity and at this stage is described as oligotrophic (few food) lake. The water body gradually acquires inorganic and organic nutrient from catchment areas and these promote aquatic growth and increased biological productivity causing the lake to become murky with decaying organic matter and phytoplankton. The water body is said to be eutrophic (well fed) and consequently, the decaying organic matter depletes its available oxygen. Increase in the accumulation of silt and organic matter, makes the water body shallower and sunlight penetrate slowly to the bottom, making the water warmer. Plants take roots along the shallow edges and the lake slowly transforms into a marsh or swamp which may eventually lead to dry land (Ademoroti, 1996).
Anthropogenic impact and seasonal climatic changes have aggravated eutrophication in water bodies worldwide. Advancement in science and technological innovation in agricultural practices has resulted in increased usage of natural and synthetic manures rich in phosphorus, potassium, and calcium in farming. These have accelerated the natural process of eutrophication worldwide. Nations of the world are conscious of the famous Malthusian economic theory and hence fight against this detrimental prediction by increasing food production through the construction of dams for irrigation and energy. Nations in arid regions are also making efforts to conserve their existing water resources to meet the increasing food demand through water storage reservoirs to conserve and harness this precious resource more efficiently. Such reservoirs and lakes are subject to several kinds of degradation and losses through evaporation, inefficient storage and consumption waste in addition to the growth of all kinds of aquatic organisms such as plankton, insects, fish and angiosperms. These changes lead to the phenomenon of eutrophication (Rashid and Anjum, 1985).
Eutrophication therefore causes progressive deterioration of water quality especially lakes due to luxuriant growth of plants with the effect that the overall metabolism of the water is affected (Richard, 1970).
A research carried out by Rashid and Anjum (1985) showed that the presence of Euglena, oscillatoria and Anabaena Spp indicate high organic pollution responsible for eutrophication and this affects the species of macroinvertebrates and macroinvertebrates including the species of fish in the water. It was found that the predatory specie Notopterus notopterus was gradually increasing causing threat to the survival of some useful fish in the water body. Eutrophication is therefore detrimental to crop production, fish farming and provision of potable drinking water.
Eutrophic water bodies receive large amount of aquatic plant nutrients relative to their surface area and volume and have high production of aquatic plants (Fred and Ann, 1978). Oligotrophic water bodies tend to be poorly fertilized and have low aquatic plant production, mesotrophic water bodies receive moderate amount of aquatic plants nutrients.
Thermocline is a term used in describing the depth in a water body in which there is rapid change in temperature with depth as a result of the division of the water body into layers with different densities (Fred and Ann 1978). These are the epilimnion the warmer and less dense surface waters and also the hypolimnion which describes the cooler, more dense bottom waters. The thermocline provides a barrier of mixing water between these two layers and is normally present between early June to October in temperate water bodies (Fred and Ann 1978). During this thermal stratification, waters of the hypolimnion are isolated from the atmosphere by the thermocline and cannot replenish their oxygen. Algae which have grown in this area died and decomposed leading to reduction of oxygen at the bottom. In many eutrophic waters, this depletion is sufficient to cause anoxic conditions (Zero dissolved oxygen) in the hypolimnion (Fred and Ann 1978; Muir, 2001).
It was discovered that the river Jordan which is currently the largest and longest river that flows into Israel was under threat of extinction following eutrophication. Adequate measures were taken to keep it alive for utility and consumption since major rivers in Israel were contaminated by agricultural and industrial wastes which made the Jordan River the only natural and clean river in the country (Shoshana, 2012). Biodiversity of algal communities in the upper Jordan River formed as a result of natural climatic and anthropogenic impact was used to predict the disastrous outcome.
1.1 CAUSES OF EUTROPHICATION
1.1.1 Natural Sources
Eutrophication can also be described as the process of fertilization of natural waters (Fred and Ann, 1978). There is no place in Abuja where Eutrophication has been described as an algal bloom. Nevertheless, there is the need to put drastic environmental measures to prevent its occurrence in the near future. Any process which favours the growth of aquatic plants or plant life can lead to eutrophication. Nutrients required for plant growth include sulphur, calcium, magnesium ,sodium ,iron, zinc, copper etc. The major nutrients required by plants are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Nitrate-nitrogen is most often obtained from urea. When urea is excreted by animals it hydrolyses rapidly to ammonia which is then acted upon by the bacteria Nitrosomonas and is oxidized to nitrite. Another bacteria called Nitrobacter oxidizes the nitrite to nitrate which is available as plant nutrient (Ademoroti, 1996). The triple bond of Nitrogen, N≡N present as N2 in the atmosphere can be broken by thunderstorm to make it soluble in water during rain and all these form a natural process for nitrogen fixation into the soil which can be washed along with sand and silt to cause eutrophication in water body (Ababio 1990).
In stabilization ponds, nitrate acts as an algal nutrient thereby reinforcing the symbiotic relationship between algal and bacteria and this is the basis of wastewater purification in facultative ponds (Ademoroti, 1996).
Hydrolysis of urea
NH2CONH2 + H2O → 2NH3 + CO2
Oxidation of ammonia by Nitrosomonas.
55NH3 + 76O2 + 5CO2 → C5H7NO2 + 54NO–2 + 52H2O + 54H+ (bacteria cells)
Oxidation of nitrite by Nitrobacter.
400NO–2 + 195O2 + 5CO2 + NH3 + 2H2O → C5H7NO2 + 400NO–3 (bacteria cells)
Other natural sources leading to eutrophication include rock weathering and erosion. Erosion can transport clay, silt and plant nutrients such as calcium and phosphorus in suspension into water bodies for eutrophication (Lathrop et al 1998). The nutrients available in an environment therefore also depend on the topography (Likens, 1972).
1.1.2 Anthropogenic Sources
Human activities in urban and rural areas have led to an increase in plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium through improper disposal of sewage rich in urea from faeces and urine, food waste and other municipal waste products. The use of detergents with branch chain hydrocarbon cannot be degraded by bacteria and hence lead to the death of aquatic animals and subsequent enrichment of water body with nitrogen. The use of detergents with optical brighteners for aesthetic beauty of clothes has led to the enrichment of water bodies with nitrogen because these optical brighteners and perfumes often contain chromophore structure –N=N- to enhance redshift and desirable colour characteristics (Ababio, 1990).
Human agricultural practices such as the use of organic and inorganic fertilizers have led to increase in plant nutrients and consequently the phenomenon of eutrophication. Agricultural runoff from irrigated farms and leaching of fertilizer to water bodies have enormously increased these nutrients to favour the growth of algae (Lathrop, 1998). Nutrients from agricultural systems can pollute natural waters through drainage water, soil erosion and animal waste and soil water, making these nutrients mobile and enhancing eutrophication (Eckert 1995; Gimba, 2011).
Developing nations of the world are embracing industrialization to improve their economies and standard of living and this trend has led to the production and discharge of various contaminants to the aquatic environment. Fertilizer industries, detergent industries, food industries among others discharge a lot of waste which can find their ways into lakes, streams or rivers or even directly to the municipal sewer system (Weibel, 1970).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The increasing population density in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, have resulted in increasing discharge of domestic and industrial waste into water bodies. This could trigger eutrophication and hence the need for continuous monitoring for strategic planning in the FCT.
1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this research work is assess eutrophication parameters in surface water bodies in Abuja.
The objectives include among others to;
- Establish the physicochemical parameters of the surface water of the selected sites.
- Determine the nutritional level of the surface water using standard methods.
- Investigate the level of algal bloom in the selected sites.
- Correlate the algal bloom with nutritional level of the water bodies.
Ababio, O.Y (1990) New School Chemistry. Africa- Fep Publishers Limited Onitsha, Nigeria. Pp 488
Ademoroti, C.M.A. (1996) Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology. Foludex Press LTD Ibadan pp 46-49.
Ademoroti, C.M.A. (1996) Standard Methods For water effluents Analysis. Foludex Press LTD, Ibadan pp 28-29.
Akin-Oriola, G.A, (2003). On the Phytoplankton of Awba Reservoir, Ibadan, Nigeria. Revista De Biologia Tropica 51(1): 99-106
Anake, W.U, Ehi-Eromosele, C.O, Siyanbola, T.O, Adobor-Osoh, A, Adeniyi, I.O and Taiwo, O.S (2013). Physicochemical and Microbial Assessment of Different water sources in Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. International Journal of Current research 5(07):1797-1801.
Beata, M. Marta, P. Andrzej, R. Karolina, L. (2012). Epiphytic Diatom Community and Calcium Carbonate Crystals Characteristics of the Surface of Freshwater ulva Thalli. Str. 89, 61-614.
Bill J (2010).Eutrophication and cyanobacterial blooms. School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University.
Braga, B. Rocha, O. and Tundisi (1998). Dams and the environment: The Brazilian experience. International Journal of water Resources Development 14:2.
Chima N. (2008) Review of on-farm plant residues composting: A case study of Caton recycling, Glebe farm, Sibson, Warwickshire, United Kingdom. Journal of Environmental Research and Policies 3 (1):1-3
Cooper, P.F and Thomas E.V (1974). Recent developments in Sewage treatment based on Physicochemical methods. Journal of the water pollution Control UK 5:1-14.
Durbin E. (2002) North Atlantic right Whale, Eubalaena glacialis, exposed to paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins via a zooplankton vector, Calanus Finmarchicus. Harmful Algae 1:243-251.
Eckert D.J (1995) Nitrates in Surface water. Retrieved October 10 2012 from .
Erhunmwuse, N.O, Dirisu, A.R and Ogbeibu, A.E (2013). Managing Eutrophication in Nigeria Inland Waters. Journal of Water Resource and Protection 5: 743-746
Erickson, T.O and Stefan H.G (2009). Natural groundwater recharge response to urbanization: Vermillion River Watershed, Minnesota. Journal of water Resources planning and Management. 135 (6):512-520.
Etiosu, U. (2006) Dams are Nonrenewable. A Discussion Paper Presented at the Community Research and Development Center (CRDC), 90 Uselu-Lagos Road, Benin City Nigeria. Federal Ministry of Environment Abuja, Nigeria 2012
Flewelling, L.J (2005) Red tides and Marine Mammal Mortalities. Nature 435 (9): 755-756.
Fred, G.L. and Ann, R (1978). Eutrophication of water bodies; Insight for an age-old problem. Environmental Science and Technology 12: (8) 900-908
Geldreich E.E (1999). Pathogenic agents in Freshwater Resources. Hydrological Process 10:315-333
George, M. Peter, S and Stowe S (2006). Hallelujah Diet. Destiny Image Publishers, inc Shippensburg, PA. pp 147-159.
Gimba C.E (2011) Chemistry Lecture Manual on Environmental Pollution. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Landsberg J.H (2002). The effects of harmful algal blooms on aquatic organisms. Review in Fisheries Science, 10 (2): 113-390.
Lathrop, R.C, Stephen, R.C, John, C.P, Patricia, A and Craig A.S (1998). Phosphorus loading reductions needed to control blue-green algal blooms in Lake Mendota. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 55 (5): 1169-1178.
Likens, G.E (1972) Eutrophication and aquatic ecosystem. Nutrients and Eutrophication, the limiting nutrient Controversy. Allen press, Inc. Kansas. pp 328
Meyer, L.D and Wischmeier W.H (1969) Mathematical simulation of the process of soil erosion by water. Transactions of The American Society of Agricultural Engineers 12:754-758.
Meyer,S.C. (2005). Analysis of Base Flow trends in urban streams Northern Illinois, USA. Hydrogeological Journal 13 :871-885.
Moshood, K.M (2008) Assessment of the water Quality of Oyun Reservoir, Offa, Nigeria, Using Selected Physico-Chemical Parameters. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.8: 309-319
Muir, P. (2001) Eutrophication. Retrieved October 30 2012 from .
Neustupa, J and Jana, V and Jan, S (2013). Differential Cell size structure of Desmids and Diatoms in the Phytobenthos of peat lands. Hydrobiologia 709:159-171
Nicholson F.A, Hutchison M.C, Smith, K.A, Keevil, C.W, Chambers B.J and Moor A (2000). A study on farm manure application to agricultural land assessment of the Risk of Pathogen Transfer into the food chain. Project Number FS2526. Final Report To the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.
Nicholson, F.A, Groves, S.J, Hutchison, M.E, Nicholas, N and Chambers B.J (2002). Pathogens in animal manure: Their survival during storage and following land application. 10th International Conference of The European Network on Recycling of Agriculture, Municipal and Industrial Residues in Agriculture. High Tatras, Slovakia.
Noemi, M .N and Jozsef K (2010). Interfacial Chemistry of Rocks and soils. Surfactant Chemistry. CRC Press NY 10016
Nwanebu F.C, Ogbulie, J.N, Obi, R.K and Ojiakor O.A (2011). Chemical and Silt-Induced Eutrophication syndrome at Otamiri River, Owerri, Nigeria. Journal of Public health and Epidemiology 3(8): 358-361.
Obiri-Danso, K. and Jones K (1999). Distribution and seasonality of microbial indicators and thermophilic campylobacters in two freshwater bathing sites on the river Lune in Northwest England. Journal of Applied microbiology 87:822-832
Okibe, F.G. (2005). Determination of the Status of Eutrophication in Zaria surface water system. M.Sc Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
Pinto-Coelho R.M (1998). Effects of Eutrophication on Seasonal Patterns of Mesozooplankton in a tropical Reservoir: A 4-year study in Pampulha Lake, Brazil. FreshWater Biology 40:159-173.
Rashid, S.A and Anjum A. (1985) Preliminary Seasonal Eutrophication studies of Misriot Dam as influenced by the living organisms and physicochemical characteristics of water. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural research 6(4): 274-277
Ravishankar, H.G, Panduranga, M.G, Lokesh, S and Hosmani, S.P (2009). Diversity of Freshwater algae in two lakes of Tumkur, Karnataka State, India. Department of Studies in Biotechnology and Engineering. Shridevi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sira Road, Tumkur- 572 106, Karnataka, India
Schillings, K.E and Libra, R.D (2003) Increased base flow in Iowa over the second half of the 20th Century. Journal of American water resources Association. 39 (4):851-860.
Sellner, K.G. Doucette, G.J and KirkPatrick G.J. (2003). Harmful Algal Blooms: Causes,Impacts and Detection. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 30(7):383-406.
Shoshana, G (2012). Rehabilitation of Israel’s Rivers. Department of Water and Rivers, Ministry of Environment. Retrieved on 13th November 2012 from www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/society/rivers.htm.
Taiwo, A.M, Olujimi, O.O, Bamgbose, O and Arowolo, T.A. (2012). Surface Water Quality Monitoring in Nigeria: Situational Analysis and Future Management Strategy,
Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment, Retrieved on 13th December, 2012 from .
Taofikat, A.A and Dike, I.N (2010). A checklist of desmids of Lekki lagoon, Nigeria. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 2(3): 033-036
Tilden, J.Jr, Young, W McNamara. A, Custer. C, Boesel. B, Lambert-Fair. M.A, Majkov, S.J, Vugia, D. Werner, S.B, Hollingsworth J and Morris J.G (1996). A new route of transmission For Escherichia Coli: Infected from dry fermented Salami. American Journal of Public Health 86:1142-1145
Trainer V.L, Adams, N.G, Bill, B.D, Stehr C.M, Wekell, J.C, Moeller P, Busman, M. and Woodruff, D (2000). Domoic acid Production near California Coastal upwelling Zones, (June1998). Limnology and Oceanography 45:1818-1833
Twongo, T. (1998). Evolution of Water Hyacinth Problem in Uganda. Presidential Economic Council Report Prepared for the Task Force on Water Hyacinth Control.
Van Donsel, D.J, Geldreich, E.E and Clark, N (1967). Seasonal Variation in survival of indicator bacteria in soil and their contribution to stormwater pollution. Applied Microbiology 15:1362-1370.
Van-Dolah, F.M (2000) Marine Algal Toxins: Origins, Health Effects, and their increased Occurrence. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(1): 133-141
Verghese, B.G. (2001) Sardar Sarovar Project revalidated by Supreme Court. International Journal of water Resources Development 17 (1) :79-88.
Voinov, A.A and Sv Irezhew, Yu.M. (1984). A minimal model of Eutrophication in Freshwater Ecosystem. Ecological Modelling 23:277-292
Weibel, S.R (1970) Urban Drainage as a Factor in Eutrophication. Eutrophication Causes,Consequences and Correctives. Proceedings Symposium National Academy of Sciences. National Academy of Sciences, Washington DC pp 383-403
Wyer,M.D, Jackson, G.F, Kay D and Dawson H.M (1996). Delivery of microbial indicator organisms to coastal water from catchment sources. Water Science and technology 33:37-50
Zankhana, S. and Kumar, M.D. (2008). In the midst of the Large Dam controversy: Objectives, criteria for assessing Large water storages in the developing world. Water Resources Management 22 (12): 1799-1821.