DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AUTOMATIC PUMPING MACHINE FOR WATER SUPPLY
Water is an indispensable and inevitable substance to all living things due to its usability and high priority among other substance and materials. Provision of large volume of waters essential due to its significant purpose, which therefore called for a means by which sufficient, and good quality water can be obtained. There are different types of water namely; well water, pipe-borne waters, rain water, stream water, river water e.t.c.
In the earlier days, the use of buckets and calabash is employed in fetching water for homes, agricultural and domestic’s uses. Later, hand pumps were developed to reduce the stress and the inconveniences and other forms of contamination’s which arise due to direct contact of the body to the available water for consumption. Besides, only a small quantity of water can be made available due to physical factors such as tiredness, distance and climatic factors like dry season.
Hence, to eliminate these difficulties, pumping machines is employed to perform the job of fetching water and storing it in storage tanks for future purpose. The system consists of connecting pipes, water pump, which is connected to electric power supply and operated manually. In order to fully eliminate the stated problems and future needs for large volume of water, the concept of automatic pumping machine is developed.
This project emphasizes on the construction of automatic pumping machine which in turns provide a simple logical, versatile and economical/circuit which turns on the pump when water in the tank fall below the minimum level and also off process is achieved by the incorporating of the following to the pumping system:
The sensor: This measures the physical states such as the level of the water.
The responder: which responses to what is being sensed, it comprises of electrical and mechanical devices.
The actuator: This actuates the responder to sense the water level in the tank to perform the switching operation.
In summary, the automatic control system is very effective, efficient and consequently reduces labour cost, flooding, man power and provides enough water for usage.
Background of the study.
This project is carried out so as to provide a means of reducing stress involved in fetching water, wastage of water and flooding which may result from overfilling of the tank and eventually reduce to minimum, if not eliminating damages to the pumping machine.
Aim and Objectives
The aims and objectives of this project are:
- To reduce the labour involved in operating pumping machine manually.
- To prevent or protect the coil of pumping machine from being burnt as a result of continuous work beyond its operating time.
- To pump water automatically from water sources.
- To prevent wastage of natural resources (water in particularly) and flooding of premises.
- To prevent the machine from sucking mud and or air when there is no water in the well or source of water supply.
Scope of the Study
The project is design to provide a means of storing water for the benefit of mankind and industrial purpose. The control section is used for the control of water level to various sizes of tank or reservoir. The minimum and maximum level of water in the tank is determined by the probe.
Significance of Study
The significance of the study is to design a means of mankind water available in the storage tank for future uses such as domestic, industrial, Agricultural and economic purposes, which are beneficial to mankind. It is also reduce labour coil, wastage of water resulting from filling of the tank, which can eventually leads to flooding. Consequently it enables long life span of the pumping machine.
In the course of searching for information on this project, we consulted some learned professionals, lecturers, relevant textbooks, such as electrical drafting and design for the HND students, journals and past project reports in the library of the institution e.g Federal Polytechnic, Ede, Osun State, and browsing on the Internet to acquire relevant information on the design and construction of the project.
Limitation of the Project
The major limitation of the study is that it cannot be used when there is no power supply from Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) unless an alternative means of power supply is designed to power the project.