AVAILABILITY OF TEACHERS AND LABORATORY FACILITIES FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF COMPUTER SCIENCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The aim of computer science education is to transmit data and scientific knowledge. It also aims at building a new attitude that prepares the young to think for themselves to arrive at objective conclusion and also to be able to face a fact changing world. If children are exposed to science early, positive attitude to science at any level is build upon primary and secondary science curriculum and teaching. Therefore, there is need to arrest some enormous problems playing science teaching and learning in our secondary schools today. These problems however, have lead to the provision of science laboratory equipment/facilities. There is, therefore, the need for some structured activities that will enable students acquire desirable knowledge and skills in science. Proper (1959) suggested that knowledge in science computer science for instance involved the following areas comprises: • Enquiring • Problem solving • Experimentation • Instrumentation
Under this method, students are asked question on physically observed phenomenon. It is better to present the question as general problem and get the students to respond to the question. Using good response from the students shows that actual teaching is done. For example, if the topic is on hardware, the teacher will ask the students to show him/her those things we call hardware.
This is the ability to solve problem based on data. It deals with this ability to analyze and interpret data, ability to draw conclusion thereby suggesting active report or an oral report, ability to perform experiment. Also is the ability to observe and record correctly, to manipulate, and comprehend the purpose of the experiment. It torches also on the ability to plan/select procedure and to recognize limitations and source of errors. Furthermore it is concern with knowledge that helps students to control experiment; appreciate the need for care, economy of time and materials.
This involves the ability to experiment and control experiment. That is after the theoretical explanations are taken to the laboratory to perform it experimentally.
What the teacher does is to go round and instruct the an how to carry out the experiment accurately. When they become conversant with the experiment, they can be left alone with the software and hardware in computer.
This is the ability to manipulate basic setup from the memory. It also involves the ability to identify various pieces of equipment. Computer sciences as a course of study is believed to be an abstract subject and most computer teachers are accused of teaching the subject abstract or theoretically must of the time. The teaching and learning of computer science should involve their theoretical and practical aspect or process. In order to this, the provides students with unique opportunities to study abstract concept and generalization through the medium of real material that are relevant to their learning situation(s). Hence, make basic measurement with apparatus and get accurate figures. The teaching and learning of these major areas can be approached from a theoretical framework or from an experimental approach. Both ways complement each other to facilitate learning. It is in a test of the letter that writers undertook to design implement and evaluate a comparatively new laboratory method. In it, the teacher presents the science concepts to the students and the students thereafter discuss their procedures in groups, working with material given to them prior to laboratory work. Through discussions, students thinking are oriented towards specific problems for which they set out to find solution(s). The teaching and learning of computer science involves the three domains of educational objectives namely:
It has been observed that often times teachers of computer sciences mostly emphasis cognitive domain at the expense of the other two domains involves adequate exposition of students to practical activities in computer science. For computer science to make sense to students, teaching of science need to be done in a well equipped laboratory and workshop capable of giving students adequate scientific experience with practical and demonstration affords. Therefore, laboratory experience provides creativity for the learner and ability to plan ahead, design new problems, invent things and also enables the learners to synthesize data. Without the laboratory experience students can only their examination through memorization of theoretical aspect of science and as such practical activities in computer science. This study focus on the availability of teaching and laboratory facilities for effective teaching and learning of computer science in Junior Secondary School in Enugu North Local Government Area. The Webster’s Dictionary (1992) define laboratory as a place equip for experimental study in a science or for testing or analysis. Broadly, a laboratory encompasses a site providing opportunity or experimentation, observation or practice in a field of study. School laboratory includes these places or area where practical study or teachings are carried out to facility learning. Here the students practical what they have learnt theoretically in the classroom. By doing, knowledge is then registered permanently. Demonstration in the laboratory has been described as effective methods of learning because it involves several sense organs: seeing, hearing, touching and smelling. No doubt, it helps to concretize the understanding of certain principles learnt theoretically. Most people in the society are aware of the unemployment problem prevailing in the society or country and the role proper acquisition of skill could play in mankind graduates to be self employed. Computer science has an impact on our lives in a great number of ways. Therefore the study of computer science should never be separated from the study of the real world around us. If one is literate in computer science, one must be prepared to investigate, to observe, to carryout experiments (practical) and then record his/her result. Boulind (1979) define practical lessons as aids which are used by the teachers to help him/her communicate his/her ideas effectively. For computer science to be effectively learnt, practical lessons are therefore inevitable; in this view Gravernir (1986) notes that one of the major, if not the most important function of an educational system in the contemporary time, is to produce the prolong skilled manpower which a nation needs to grow economically. For this to be effective, both the teachers and students of computer science education need a good human and material laboratory equipment. If the study of computer science must achieve these roles in the nation’s development effort, the first step is towards providing for skill acquisition. Hence, the role, a well equipped computer science teachers plays in the teaching and learning of computer cannot be over emphasized. Therefore, the extent to which school laboratory facilities will contribute to effective skill acquisition in secondary school will depend generally in how far the needed equipment for imparting learning to students by doing and discovering inquiring approaches are used in a variety of ways and situations. Good teaching somehow depends upon the availability of teachers and variety of laboratory equipment to support the theory. This of course means that the computer science laboratory facilities must not only be in harmony with the goals also has a definite value for improving the learning of specific topics. Today in Enugu North, there appears to be little or no equipment for the teaching of computer science in Junior Secondary School. If we recall the important role which computer plays in the government of any society, one would wonder why it is not being given the desired attention vis-à-vis provision of needed equipment for effective learning and teaching. It is therefore, necessary to ascertain the degree of availability or otherwise of computer science laboratory equipment in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu North Local Government Area. In Enugu North Local Government Area, the study of computer science is made optional in all junior secondary school except in special science schools. Yet this subject is highly imperative for the national technological development. Again, many schools are not provided with adequate equipment for the teaching and learning of the subject. The effect of inadequate equipment for the effective teaching and learning of computer science in some selected schools continue to pester the local government area. The situation has led to the rapid decline in student’s interest in the subject. If schools are well equipped, it will mean better teaching by teacher and student’s interest in the subject will be increased. Conversely if these equipment are lacking, obviously our dream for science and technological development would remain a mirage. The problem this study therefore is to ascertain how effective is the availability of teachers and laboratory facilities in teaching and learning of computer science in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu North Local Government Area.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the project is to determine the facilities for effective teaching and learning of computer science in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu North Local Government Area. Specifically the study tends to:- 1. Assess the degree of the availability of teachers and laboratory facilities in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu North Local Government Area. 2. Determine the source of supply of computer science laboratory facilities in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu North Local Government Area. 3. Determining the extent of utilization of the available computer science equipment for effective teaching and learning.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is the researchers wish repair the materials that will highlight the needs for making available the laboratory equipment for teaching computer science. It is also hoped that the result of this will highlight the extent to which availability of computer science laboratory equipment helps teachers to achieve higher performance in the teaching of computer science in Junior Secondary School and those who want to be self employed. This study will be of assistance to the educational planners it will help them to make necessary changes in terms of providing funds, staff recruitment, development and the availability of teachers.The finding of the study will also provide solutions to the problems of unavailability of teachers and laboratory facilities in order to promote the effectiveness of teaching and learning in junior Secondary Schools in Enugu North Local Government Area.
The following research question guided the study:
• To what extent are computer science teachers available in Junior Secondary School in Enugu North Local Government Area
• What are the sources of supply of computer science or the availability of computer science laboratory facilities in Junior Secondary School in Enugu North Local Government Area
• To what extent does availability of teachers and laboratory facilities are effective to the teaching and learning of this subject (computer science)
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will be limited to junior secondary schools that are offering computer science in Enugu North Local Government Area and to serve as sampling techniques to other Junior Secondary Schools offerings computer science in Enugu State Secondary Schools. This study will also be designed to find out the extent of the availability of teaching and learning and to determine the extent of supply and the utilization of the available computer science laboratory facilities.