Bibliographic Compilation on Corruption in Nigeria 2010 – 2013
The SLSH identified the following breakdown
Bribery and corruption
DEFINITION OF THE TERMS
Corruption can be defined as “the abuse of public for private individual or groups to whom one owners allegiance. It occurs when a public official accepts solicits or extorts payment or when private agents offer a payment to circumvent the law for competitive or personal advantage.
TYEPS OF CORRUPTION
1. BRIBERY AND CORRUPTION
Bribery is the act of promising, giving or agreeing to receive money or some other items of value with the corrupt aim of influencing a public official in the discharge of his official duties. When the money has been offered or promised in exchange for a corrupt act, the official involved need not actually accomplish that act for the offense of bribery to be complete. It is the payment sought by public official or offered by private agents in return for favours such as government contract.
i. GREASE PAYMENT
Is money paid to public official to do work that are already being paid to do such as issuing a license.
ii. PETTY CORRUPTION
It is the collection of a public official with a member fo the public to subvert the system by senior government officials, ministers and heads of state.
iii. BUREAUCRATIC CORRUPTION
This is abuse of discretion by public officials to bend or circumvent rule and regulation in exchange for creating benefits.
2. POLITICAL CORRUPTION
Political corruption is the trading of influence and authority by political leaders and may extend to granting favours, irregularities in campaign, financing and electoral fund.
3. DRUG ABUSE
Drug abuse is a serious public health problem that affects almost every community and family in some ways. Each year drug abuse cause millions of serious illnesses or injuries among Nigerian and American. Abuse of drug includes play a role in many major social problems such as drugged diving, violence stress and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime and missed work or problem with keeping a job. It is harmful ot babies and it destroys families.
4. DRUG TRAFFICKING
Drug trafficking is a global illicit trade involving the cultivation, manufacturing, distribution and sale of substances which are subject to drug prohibition law. UNODC is continuously monitoring and researching global illicit drug market in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of their dynamic, drug trafficking is the key part of their research.
Kidnapping the taking away of a person against the person the person’s will usually for ransom or in furtherance of another crime, is becoming everyone’s nightmare in our dear country.
6. KIDNAPPING IN NIGERIA IS OUT OF HAND
Driving home through the darkness is September to 2013 toward Nigeria main oil city, portharcourt Archbishop Ignatius Kattey and his wife has no idea that an armed gang was about to nab them. Yet was not an extraordinary event. The kidnap of Nigeria’s second-ranking Anglican deric, whose wife has since been treed, was just another instance. Albeit at a higher level than usual of a crime that residents of the swampy Niger Delta have become grimly accustomed to.
Kidnapping in the oil region is invariably for ransom foreign oilmen used to be the usual targets, but rich Nigeria businessman, prominent academics and even footballers have become increasingly vulnerable. The kidnap menace has also got a lot works this year in Lagos, Nigeria’s largest city and its economic hub.
7. POLICE CORRUPTION
Police corruption are regarded as the activities characterized by artificial and often dishonest practices. Police are the members of an official organization whose job is to keep public order prevent and solve crime. But because corruption is what take they a way to get money easy so they enforce law and also take bribe on their benefit.
8. POLITICAL CRISIS
Political crisis is referred to as the illegal or offences in which individuals or collectivities of people purposive manner in order to gain financial returns or power e.g war, embezzlement of public fund, atomic bomb.
It is a time of great difficulty or danger or when and illness. Somebody’s life, history, it include financial, economic, political, domestic crisis.
9. POLITICAL CORRUPTION OR CRIME
It is the act or he commission of an act that is forbidden or the omission of a duty that is commanded by a public law of a sovereign state to the injury of the public welfare and that makes the offender more liable to punishment by that law in a proceeding brought against him by the state by indictment, information, complaint or by similar criminal procedure.
HISTORY OF CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA
Corruption is a social problem that has bothered many scholars. Ruzindana (1999) assert that corruption in Africa is a problem of routine deviation from established standard and norms by public officials and parties with whom they interact. He also identified the types of corruption in Africa which are bribery, private gain etc.
According to the ICPC Act (section 2) corruption includes vices like bribery, fraud and other related offences. A panoramic analysis of the vice of corruption shows that it is the physical symptom of involves not one party but more than one party. It takes a form of an organized crime. At times, an organization can be established on corruption begets corruption. Gbenga (2000) then assert that corruption is contagious. According to pre perception index in 2010 transparency international, Nigeria was ranked 14th out of the 146 countries served beating Bangladesh and Haiti to the cast position. An analysis of the anti-graft anti-corruption practitioner will continue in spite of the anti-graft corruption laws because man in positions are confident that no action can be taken against them because corruption is something that supposedly take place in private. Nowadays, we have seen how the laws are between applied, particularly the EFCC.
INDEPENDENT CORRUPTION PRACTICES AND OTHER OFFENCES COMMISSION
1. PERCEPTION OF CORRUPTION
The transparency international in their corruption perception index in early 2000, pronounced Nigeria as one of the most corrupt nation in the world. This was in spite of the fact that democratic institution has been introduced and the anti-corruption commission set up. Even as today, Nigeria occupies the cast but on position down the ladder among nation adjudged to be corrupt by transparency international corruption perception index.
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COMMISSION
The resolve to fight and win the war against corruption in Nigeria led to the promulgation of the corrupt practices and other related offences Act. (2000).
The Act was the first ill presented by President Olusegun Obasanjo to the National Assembly for consideration at the inception of the present democratic administration in 1999.
It was passed and signed into law on 13th of June 2000. The Act establishes the independent responsibility of fighting corruption and other related offence.
TYPES OF CORRUPTION
- Bribery and grease payment
- Private gain
- Ghost workers
- Petty corruption
- Bureaucratic corruption
- Political corruption
TYPES OF DRUG ABUSE
2. Anabolic steroids
3. Club drugs
8. Prescription drugs.
TYPES OF POLICE CORRUPTION
2. Money laundry
Types of political corruption
- Rigging of elections
3. Looting of funds
5. Violence 9war)
TYPES OF POLITICAL CRISIS
- Economic crisis
2. Financial crisis
3. Political crisis
4. Domestic crisis
EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION ON NIGERIA ECONOMY
Corruption no doubt has eaten deep into the integrity of Nigeria. Even the re-branding intrusive is the evil called corruption starts from the head down the foes i.e (from Abuja down to the least civil servant in local government in Nigeria).
Since center can no longer hold, mere anarchy has lose upon Nigeria, a country God blessed with abundant minerals resource. Yet, the citizen suffer in midst of plenty.
Anyway, all hope is not lost, if all join hands sincerely together to fight this ugly monster called corruption united we stand. I am called on the EFCC ICPC and other necessary agents to raise up to the challenge and fight it vigorously to restore transparency, clerk and that can root out corruption before it takes the system as a whole.
Finally, corruption according to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defined it is dishonest or wicked, illegal behaviours especially of people in high authority. It is act of making some body change form moral to immoral. Standard of behaviours.
Broadly, the word “corruption” is gotten from the latin word “corruptus”, past participle of corrumpere which is a destroy and rumpere to break, when seemed as advance literally means utterly broken. In modern English usages, the word “corruption” and applies to those with political
ABBREVIATION AND MEANINGS
AIDS: Acquired immune Deficiency syndrome
EFCC: Economic and financial crime commission
FG: Federal Government
HIV: Human Immune Virus
ICPC: Independent corrupt practices commission
NAFDAC: National Drug Law Enforcement Agency
SSS: State security Service.