A BIBLIOGRAPHIC SURVEY ON TYPES OF LIBRARIES IN NIGERIA (2004 – 2010)
The Roget’s the saurus has listed the following as related to library.
- Book depository
- Information center
- Country library
- Lending library
- National library
- Circuiting library
- Municipal library
- Public library
- Special library
- Rental library
- Private library
- Learning center
- State library
LIBRARY: is define as the collection of written printed or other graphic or visual material organized and maintained for reading, studying and consultation.
It is also define as a collection of books, pamphlet, etc. Kept for reading and consultation; especially, such a collection anged to facilitate reference as by classification and indexing.
You can also say that a library is a place where books are professionally organized, center of information and knowledge
Library is a place where every human went for their own to research on topics and also to educate their brains.
Library is basically concerned with the provision of reading and learning facilities irrespection of age or discipline and administration. The role of the library has changed over the years, consequently. Some definitions do not suit the concept and role of modern libraries.
For this modern definition of library is defines as the collection of books and non-books materials housed, organized and interpreted to meet the broad an varying needs for people for information, knowledge, recreation and cultural enjoyment.
TYPES OF LIBRARIES
There are different types of libraries.
- SCHOOL LIBRARY
- ACADEMIC LIBRARY
- SPECIAL LIBRARY
- PUBLIC LIBRARY
- PRIMATE LIBRARY
- MOBILE LIBRARY
A school library can be defined as an organized collection of print and non-print materials kept in a school for the use of both pupils and teachers but mainly for pupils. This types of libraries are established in primary and secondary schools whose collections are mainly for the young..
These are libraries established in institutions of higher learning, which include universities, Polytechnics College of education, college of technologies and other related institutions. An academic library is established as an integral part of the institution aimed as agent for the transmission of the scholarship of the society it also tries to satisfy the basic information and bibliographic needs of student and lecturers in their general and special intellectual field.
A special library is a library set up by an organization to promote the organizational objectives with collections limited to the subjects covered by the organization.
It is assigned the mission of acquiring, organizing and providing access to information and knowledge so as to further the objectives are aspiration of the parent organization.
It is expected to select, procure, store, retrieve and disseminate information relating to the special field of the parent organization. Special libraries are special in their users, users who can professionally oriented and research based.
A public library can be defined as a library established in a town or city which is maintained from public fund and is generally available free of charge to the public. Its collection tends to spen all field of knowledge include a good provision for children.
Public library may serve the general public or special categories of public which as children, members of armed forces, hospital, patients, prisoners worker and so on.
Its aim is to serve the general public.
These are libraries owned and financed by the national government of a country, charged with the function of acquiring, assembling and preserving for use material of knowledge previously recorded in whatever from for the present and future generations.
The National Library of any country is the mother library, the apex library and a peacemaker in library development and services.
It is the library of the highest standing and the symbol of intellectual resources of the nation. It is the legal deposit library, which performed the function of publication of the National Bibliography of the country it serves. It assign the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) and International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) to the country publishers. It also adopts international rules for bibliographic description and disseminates to sum-some to other. Libraries in the country via conference and seminars which it organizes.
These are libraries that are prillately owned, and not opened for public use.
Also that can by use by an individual at his/her home.
These are movable libraries that can serve the people or public located in remote areas where there are no plans of establishing a library, usually it is being set up in trucks with open space at the back so that its clienteles whom are mostly villagers, will find it easy to retrieve the materials of their choice, these library, usually moves from one village to the other.
HISTORY OF LIBRARIES IN NIGERIA
Like the art of writing originated in the tropical and sub-tropical land of Africa and Asia.
It is known that the art of writing was first started in what is now western Pakistan and in the valley of River indus approximately 7,00 years ago. From there it was probably carried to Samaria and Egypt. It was in Samaria (modern Iraq) that the first libraries were established.
A library containing over 50,000 clay tablets existed in Subpara about six thousand years ago. There were in this city at the time a temple dedicated to sun – God and school facing the temple and there were libraries in each of the building.
However, in Nigeria, during the Second World War reading rooms were setup all over the northern Nigeria to serve as public information centres.
Finally, in 1852, a Regional library was established in Kaduna as a Division of ministry of education to help the Native authorities develop the reading rooms into public library became a division of ministry of information.
IMPORTANCE OF LIBRARIES
To inform citizen: There is no gain doubting that democracy and libraries have a symbiotic relationship. Libraries make democracy work by providing access to information so that citizen can make decision necessary to give themselves. Also library, especially the public ones make knowledge and ideas available to all irrespective of age, race, creed, sex and economic status. Break down boundaries. Library got rid of the fence that obstruct our visions and abilities of inter-communication, association and self education. Public libraries provides free, family literacy programme for low literate, illiterate and non-English-speaking people. However, in the value of individual, library door are open for independent thinking without pre judgment. Collection in libraries gives access to historical, cultural and political facts that are necessary to foster spirit of exploration.
Finally, another important of library is that it preserve the past. Library keeps records as ready reference for all humanity of the past.
PROBLEMS OF LIBRARIES IN NIGERIA
Lack of planning at the national level: The federal government has had on a number of occasion expert advice on the setting up a national library at Lagos. Lack of backing from an energetic viable professional body. Since its inauguration in 1962, the Nigeria Library Association appears to have achieved very little professionals.
Lack of suitable reading materials geared to the taste of people and commensurate with their level of education state poverty which hinders library expansion.
Though poor world standard, one is safe in saying that library provision in the country at present is not good enough, other things remaining equal.
SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEMS
Lack of planning as one of problem mibinlting against Nigeria library development: The federal government should be able to establish national library headquarters in all the state. Lack of backing from on energetic viable professional body as problem of Nigeria library development.
Government should employ qualified professional librarians that will carry out libraries routines effectively and simultaneously and also motivate librarians to make other people to have interest in the discipline of librarianship. However, problems of institution of all different types of libraries should try as much as possible to provide adequate fund which will be used in purchasing needed reading materials in library which will make the library cliental to meet up with their information need.
In conclusion a modern is a social institution that anticipates the needs of its users and makes adequate provision to wards their fulfillment in terms of availability of materials and unreserved and unrestrained services. So, modern library is a social institution whose goals is to maximize the social utility of documents. It’s aim is to put the motto: “Books are for use” into practice.
ABBREVIATION AND MEANING
ASSO – Association
BLS – Bachelor Library Science
CET – Central Education Technology
COMM – Community
ed – Edited
edu. – Education
IFLA – International Federal of Library Association
Inform – Information
Jour – Journal
Lang – Language
Lib – Library
MLS – Master in Library Science
Nig – Nigeria
NLA – National Library Association
P – Page
Pub – Public
Res – Research
SC – Science
Sch – School
T.V. – Television
U.B.E. – Universal Basic Education