BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY AND EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN BORNO STATE
Historically, Borno State, which was founded in 1976, initially comprised the present Borno and Yobe State. Prior to the advent of insurgency, it has been a relatively peaceful, multicultural and dynamic State in Nigeria. The State is fortunate to have human and natural resources, which have created many opportunities for its indigenes and other Nigerians to live in harmony. Borno State started experiencing the global trend of insurgency from 2009 (Adamu, 2014). Which led to the gruesome killings of innocent Nigerian citizens perpetrated by an insurgent group called Boko Haram (Adamu, 2014). Since 2009, they have disrupts educational system in Borno State with huge negative effect on basic education. The insurgent group dislikes children attending schools, and also committed criminal offences ranging from kidnaping of school pupils and attacking teachers in schools (Adeyemi, 2014). There is major destruction of school activities in the state. Recent past, they used under-age girls to carry out suicide bombing of major shopping mall, cinema halls and bus station. Moreso, Abduction of school children and the elderly were also common in their recent styles of mindless attack.
Geographically, according to Borno State Government (BSG, 2012) the State is the largest State in Nigeria in terms of land mass territory which covers 69,435 square kilometers, which is located in the north eastern corner of Nigeria. Educationally, the State is a center for education to all its international and national neighbors such as the northern part of Cameroun, the southern part of Chad and Republic of Niger. Many students from Adamawa, Gombe and Yobe State in Nigeria had also benefited from the State basic education program. The major tribe in Borno State is called “Kanuri” which constitute the higher hierarchy in the management of basic education in the state. Occupationally, majority of the people in Borno state are famers, fishermen and herdsmen but also send their children to the basic schools. The State is having a conventional university known as University of Maiduguri, a polytechnic, colleges of education, many senior secondary schools as well as many basic schools.
The Nigerian National Policy on Education (FGN, 2004) defined basic education as the type of education received at primary school level up to junior secondary school level.
According to the Universal Basic Education Commission, the objectives of the basic education are as follows:
a) Provision of scholarship to drop out of school children through the basic education programme.
b) Ensure the acquisition of the appropriate levels of literacy, manipulative and life skills (as well as the ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying the foundation for life-long learning.
c) Develop the entire citizens with a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its education
d) Provide free, compulsory, universal basic education for every Nigerian students of school age group.
e) Reduce drastically, drop outrage from the formal school system through improved relevance and efficiency curriculum.
Universal Basic Education is the transmission of knowledge to all Nigerian society from generation to generation. It has two main components— Universal and Basic Education. Universal means a programme that is meant for all arms of the society such as the poor and the rich, the physically challenge and all the school dropouts people in Borno State. While Basic Education means the beginning of acquisition of desirable skill, knowledge and attitude in a formal school system. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of insurgency on universal basic education in Borno State and make appropriate solution to the challenges of basic education in the State.
1.1 Background of Study
Since the inception of President Goodluck Jonathan administration in Nigeria, security challenges has become an issue in discourse hence Boko Haram.
Its philosophy stands for outright rejection of Western education, Western culture and modern science and advocates the propagation of strict adherence to Islam in its purest form. Boko Haram represents the vision and mission of a fundamentalist Islamic movement in Nigeria. The sect known as Jama’atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda’awati wal-Jihad (people committed to the propagation of the prophet’s teachings and Jihad) seeks to Islamize Nigeria by whatever means at its disposal and at whatever human cost. So far the dastardly activities of this sect have been confined to churches, security operatives and public buildings in the Northern states and the Federal Capital Territory but now have shifted to schools especially in Brono, Yobe and Adamawa state of Northern Nigeria.
The atmosphere of insecurity currently pervading the nation is now worsened by the allegation of complicity among high-ranking security personnel, executive cabinet which president Good Luck Jonathan openly said Boko Haram have infiltrated his government.
The spate of bombing now is targeted at primary schools, secondary schools and tertiary institutions respectively; killing and maiming students, teachers, lecturers as well as burning school building at will which forced majority of schools to close down in the North especially Borno, Yobe and Adamawa state respectively.
The trend of insecurity in the country especially with activities of the dreaded Islamic sect popularly known as Boko Haram has become a major concern for every Nigerian. Significant stakeholders in the country have offered suggestions on the need to check the new security challenges posed by the dreaded Islamic sect in the country. While some suggested that amnesty be offered to the group; others called for collaboration with world leaders and international organizations as strategies to rid the country of Boko Haram terrorists. Some also suggested the need for strengthening of internal security to combat sect. It is against this background that this paper tends to stress the effect of Boko Haram Insurgency on education system especially in the Northern states of Borno, Yobe and Adamawa state respectively. More of the Boko Haram Insurgency will be discussed with events and date in the next chapter.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Empathically, many schools in Borno State had experienced several attacks from the insurgent group; some basic schools especially in Baga towns in northern part of the State have been closed down for 2 years (BSMOE, 2015). The authors strongly stated that, insurgency should not be allowed to penetrate in to any nations, in a manner it penetrated in to Nigeria through Borno State. The problem could be traced when the Boko Haram group uses religion to set up rules in a community unnoticed, advance it with violence to the State level and metamorphous in to an insurgent group, and disturbed the peace of the State. The authors argued that, this could happen due to the negligence on the part of the then Borno State government, which served as a lesson to other countries in Africa.
More so, education in Borno State have been experiencing serious problem prior to the insurgency, there are shortage of classes for teaching and learning, shortage of instructional materials and teachers (NUT, 2007). This has indicated that basic school is under-funded by the State government. Lack of payment of teacher’s salary which lead to frequent strike by basic school teachers are also concern to many families (NUT, 2008). Moreover, while the state is struggling to overcome the existing problems, insurgent came in as a bigger challenged to the State, which now posed as a threat to many parents, and children of school age in Borno State.
All these phenomenal, prompted the researcher to conduct this study and have a researchable solutions to the effect of this insurgency on education in Borno state. The outcomes of this study will be of considerable benefits to Nigerian students in the area of socio-cultural value on education, also serve as an insight for other countries to study the situation in Nigeria and avert any pre-insurgency activities in their Nations. More to the issue of the Boko Haram Insurgency, the educational system have not been able to grow or expand beyond its cost for the past decade rather foreign students have departed due to the insecurity
1.3 Aim and Objective of the Study
The aim of this research is to find out if the effects of the Boko Haram Insurgency on educational development of Boron State. With the following objectives.
1. Highlights the problem caused by the Insurgency to the development of education in Borno state.
2. Calls the attention of the government on the need and urgency for resolving the issue in Boron State
1.4 Research Question
The following research question as constructed to guide and streamline this research work to is core importance.
1. Since the beginning of Boko Haram Insurgency in the state, has there been any school that is established?
2. Sir what has been thee population growth of your school after the Insurgency history came up in this state?
3. Based on the Boko Haram Insurgency in the state has the academic performance of your student dropped for any reason?
4. How free are the students and the staff of your school been in movement and functionality since the Insurgency Boko Haram came to place?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The researcher formulated two research hypothesis or assumption which will be tested using the chi-square data formula and a 0.5 percent error percent. The hypothesis will be accepted or rejected based on its significance effect.
Ho1 – There is no significant difference in educational development in the state from the previous years when the Boko Haram Insurgency has not come to place.
Ho2 – There is no significant difference in student performance and growth attendance among urban and rural schools in states that are prone to Boko Haram Insurgency in Boron State Nigeria
Ho3 – There is no significant difference in population growth of the student in respect to the Boko Haram Insurgency in the state.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study covers the effects of Boko Haram Insurgency in Boron state to the educational Development in the state, among the schools was a coverage of 27 selected schools randomly selected. Also the study examines the relationship between the two variables Boko haram Insurgency and Educational Development.
1.7 Significance of the Study
There are numerous reasons why this research is useful, the research work would be of great importance to students and lectures in practice of how to carry out further research in the same area. It will help the government to solve some likely problems that might encounter in terms of development in Nigeria. Also, the research will act as a guide to the government in their quest to quell the problems associated with security, ethnic crisis and political or religious crisis in Nigeria.
1.8 Limitation of Study
During the course of performing/researching this project work, the researcher encountered a lot of challenges as well as opposition which ranges from financial constraints, time factor. This factors in their own ways, slowed down the speedy progress of this work that resulted to the researcher not being able to finish the research work on time as is required.
Also, within the area of study the researcher was faced with some other forms of constrains that contributed to the limitation of this researcher work, like accessibility to data, information and facts concerning the present study due to some reasons or the other, some not willing to give out information that it is to be within the workers.