THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION
A CASE STUDY OF ESE-ODO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE
This study investigated the causes and effects of rural-urban migration in Ese-odo L.G.A. of Ondo State. The population of the study covered the whole villages in the study area from, which a sample of five towns was selected. From these towns, 5 respondents were picked each. The data for the study were gathered using questionnaires. From the study, it was found out that; (a) There was rural-urban migration in the study area (b) The major causes of rural-urban migration in the area were poor social amenities and unemployment (c) The major effects of rural-urban migration in the study area were lack of job opportunities and high cost of living, escalation of crime etc. To check these causes, the following recommendations were made; (i) Unemployment, poverty, striving for high standard of living (ii) search for better education, enjoyment of social amenities.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Chapter one: Introduction
Background of the study
Statement of problems
Objectives of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Limitations of the study
Definition of terms
Chapter two: literature review
Meaning and definition of migration
Types of migration
Types of rural-urban migration
Causes of rural-urban migration
Effects of rural-urban migration
Chapter three: Methodology
Population of study
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis
Chapter four: analysis of data and discussion of results
Showing that there is rural-urban migration in the study area
Causes of rural-urban migration in the study area
Effects of rural-urban migration in the study area
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The mobility of man has increased with technical and economic process. He has specialized means of transport to assist his mobility as much that distance is spoken of in terms of time according to the mode of transport.
Migration is a dynamic component of population with reference to movement of people from one geographical area to another.
Migration can be classified into the following;
a) Rural – rural migration
b) Rural – urban migration
c) Urban – urban migration
d) Urban – rural migration
But attention will be focused on rapid urbanization process and this has caused great pressure on the existing infrastructure consequently.
This has however led to a deplorable living condition, unemployment and congestion of the urban centres.
The rationalization of infrastructure has become the order of the day and unemployment problem among the people in Ese-Odo Local Government Area of Ondo State.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
There has been a large movement of people from rural areas to urban centres since independence
This project is meant to find out the causes and effects of rural-urban migration, which has now become rampant in the study area Ese-Odo Local Governemnt Area.
Perhaps, this movement may be as a result of inadequacy of socio amenities in the rural areas, searching for white collar jobs, educational purposes etc. But finance and time have been the major constraints to the realization of this project work.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study that will be achieved include the following;
a) To identify the causes of rural-urban migration in the study area
b) To highlight the effects of rural-urban migration in the area
c) To suggest ways of controlling rural-urban migration in the area
Since this project work will be guided by the following research questions,
a) What are the causes of rural-urban migration in Ese-odo L.G.A.?
b) What are the effects of rural-urban migration in the area?
c) What are the possible ways to check rural-urban migration in Ese-odo L.G.A.?
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study of migration has become a problem for a long time now, because since the world began, people have been moving from one locality to another in search of favorable opportunities such as good accommodation, good job, education, health, good communication networks, water and power supply.
The study will help to educate the mind of the individual, policy makers and the government to see the need to formulate policies for integrated rural development to check rural-urban drift in Ese-odo local government area.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study will cover the causes and effects of rural-urban migration in Ese-odo Local Government Area, Ondo State.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
The terms used in this project work as follows,
Migration: Migration can be defined as the movement of people from rural areas to the urban centres in order to earn a living
Rural area: This refers to the countryside; it refers to hamlets, villages, farmsteads etc.
Urban area: This refers to towns, cities, conurbations, megalopolis etc.
Settlement: A place containing one or more buildings with people living in them
Migrants: People engaged in moving out of a country
Emigrants: people engaged in moving out of a country
Immigrants: People that moves into a country
Net immigration: This is the difference number of immigration and emigration.