The Causes, Effects and Solution to Examination Malpractice in Secondary Schools

The Causes, Effects and Solution to Examination Malpractice in Secondary Schools (A Case Study of Ilaje Local Government Area)



Education serves as a prime instrument in the development of Nigeria but the issue of malpractice has led to the problem of this system. The main purpose of examination is for certification of achievement, selection for educational and employment opportunities, quality control of the curriculum and its delivery, monitoring of educational standards and the assessment of school effectiveness.

However, the occurrence of examination malpractices at any level of educational system poses the greatest threat to the certificate thereby, issued. According to Olusoji et al., (2002) examination malpractice is not a recent phenomenon neither is it peculiar to tertiary level. It has been with us in Nigeria for a long time and has now almost assumed an epidemic influence. The phenomenon increases in number, scope, and complexity. The first publicity reported case of examination malpractice in Nigeria occurred in 1914 when there was leakage of question papers in senior Cambridge local examination. Since then there has been several cases reported but within the recent times occurred in 2009. If we consider also the cases of examination malpractices which occurred over the years within our school system as well as examinations conducted by bodies such as JAMB, NABTEB, NAEC, WAEC, NECO, NTI, and other professional bodies, it could be concluded that examination malpractice is a common daily experience.

The effects of examination malpractice are very shocking to educational, economic and political development of any nation. Fibessima, (2002) identified the effect of examination malpractice as a production of half baked graduates form academic institution, retarded educational growth and development, false sense of value and impression of students capability as well as loss of confidence in candidates who are involved in examination malpractice.


The issue of examination malpractice has become a frequent practice in Ilaje Local government Area in Ondo State just it is in other states of the federation.

This takes different forms. In order to carryout the research successfully, the following underlying problems are to be investigated:

1. What is examination malpractice?

2. What are the causes of examination malpractice among students?

3. Lack of preparation amongst students for examination.

4. Effect of examination malpractice in the society.


To achieve a meaningful research result, the following basic question was drawn as measure to guide the researcher in carrying but the researcher:

1. Does poor moral upbringing of students in the society cause them to engage in examination malpractice?

2. Do poor teaching habits of teachers cause students to engage in examination malpractices?

3. Could lack of preparation of students for an examination be responsible for their involvement in examination malpractice?

4. Do poor conditions under which examination are conducted such as inappropriate sitting arrangement and poor supervision cause students in examination malpractice?

5. Do most students who engage in examination malpractice perform poorly in their after school?

6. Will a society where students are involved in examination malpractice suffer lack of skill manpower?


The following are hypothesis derived from the research question:

1. Poor moral upbringing of students in the society caused them to engage in examination malpractice.

2. Poor teaching habits of teachers cause students to engage in examination malpractice.

3. Lack of preparation of students for an examination causes them to get involve in examination malpractice

4. Students’ involvement in malpractice is caused by poor conditions under which examinations are conducted such as inappropriate sitting arrangement and poor supervision.


The purpose of this study aims at the following

1. To understand the concept about examination malpractice and it types.

2. To identify the cause of examination malpractice among secondary school students.

3. To realize and identify the negative effects of examination malpractice.

4. To determine the ways of controlling examination malpractice among secondary school students.


This study will help draw attention to the school principals who are much more concerned with the students’ undue passing of examination rather than being concerned with the curriculum. It will also educate parents, the school, the government/educational administrators on the need for guidance and counseling services in our secondary schools especially the ones in Ilaje Local Government Area Ondo State.

The research finding would benefit educational administrators with enablement on how to control examination malpractice thereby preventing its negative effects.


Five public schools were taken for sample as case study in Ilaje Local Government Area.


Below are some operational definitions of terminologies used in this research.

Examination: It is an important written or practical test at school that needs to undergo in order to get a promotion or qualification.

Examination malpractice: It is irregular or illegal behavior deliberate or inadvertent conduct of a candidate before, during and after any examination or examination.

Secondary school students: These are adolescents who are studying at an institution that is between the basic primary and tertiary institution.

Cause: to make something happen, especially something bad or unpleasant.

Effect: This means the result of something upon another.

Cite this article: The Causes, Effects and Solution to Examination Malpractice in Secondary Schools. Project Topics. (2021). Retrieved September 28, 2021, from

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