CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF RAW AND COOKED WALNUT

CHAPTER ONE

ABSTRACT

The nutritional potential walnut was determined by analyzing the proximate composition of conophonut, functional properties, Bulk Density of walnut flour, the result indicated the proximate composition to be Protein (39.01 + 39.69) Fat (36.26 + 38.53) Ash (2.56 + 2.71) while the mineral composition of walnut flour indicated calcium (6.93 + 6.78) Iron (2.87 + 2.80) magnesium (3.74 + 3.52) the functional properties indicated Bulk Density (0.65 + 0.82) swelling index (2.14 + 3.50) water absorbing capacity (1.89 + 2.61) Solubility  (1.52+ 2.78)

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page  i

Certification      ii

Dedication        iii

Acknowledgement     iv

Table of content   v

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction 1 – 2

CHAPTER TWO

2.1       Harvesting 3

2.2       Nutritional profile 3 

2.3       In depth nutritional profile 4

2.4       Adaptation          4

2.5       Management 4

2.6       Medical and non food uses 4 – 5  

2.7       History of walnuts 5

2.8       Uses of block walnut shell 6

2.9       Description           6 – 7

2.10     Establishment 7

2.11     Management 7

2.12     Storage of walnut 7 – 8

2.13     Uses 8

CHAPTER THREE

3.1       Storage of walnut 9

3.2       Uses 9 – 10

3.3       Materials    10

3.4       Esther extract 11

3.5       Ash determination 11

3.6       Bulk density        11

3.7       Water absorption capacity    12

3.8       Fat content 12

3.9       Swelling index   12

3.10     In-depth nutritional profile for walnuts 13

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1       Proximate composition of walnut flour 14  – 16

4.2       Cardiovascular benefit 16 – 17

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1       Conclusion 18

5.2       Recommendation        18

         References        19 – 20

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      INTRODUCTION

Nut crops such as walnut (juglas Nigra) and pecans (carya illinoenosis) have potential for small parts of Virginia. Growing and handling are specialized, and while marketing is hands oriented, demand can be good For fresh high quality nuts used both for eating out of hands and for cooking purposes (Carlson  Jones 1940) there are many different edible net species found and gathered in the wild such as hickory (Shell Dark – Shag Dark, Carya sp) chest nut (Juglan Cineralal) is another once plentiful native nut but because of chest nut Blight Diseases, it is now a rare found in the woods (Cornel Disnmic Johnson 1970)

English walnut also called (Carpathian Peisan Walnut, Juglans regia) almond (prunus amygda cus ) and nadnut (corylus avellana) represent significant activated and nut production, yet they are limited to specific adaptive areas. California the leading producer of English walnut as well as almonds, while Oregon growers produce 95% of all hazelnuts (lmore in 1977). In the east, hazelnut are also retrend to as filberts and there are several wild species found with a slumbly habits of growth. Nut production on Eastern filberts is variable and highly affected by weather conditions in the winter typically flowers (catkins) open in late winter to yearly spring and thought frost tolerant, they can be damaged by hand freezing weather (Hamel, Dictoskey 1975)

Commercially southern pecan (also known as paper shell type) is the most important nut crop for the Eastern US, followed by wild gathered natives black walnuts the pecan industry is centered in the south and south easts, with Creogia a leading state and in the Southern plans, many acres are raised in Texas and oklahoma and even as tarwest as new Mexico (Harloro, Harrar, Harden white 1996) variety development for southern Pecans has been extensive and they are renowned for their large size and very thin shells however as a starting  points, good site selection is imperative for success one must have an understanding of the frost potential and season growing length as related to the flowering and fruiting characteristics of the chosen variety. (Moerman 1998) Native black walnut are found in most part of the state there are a number of improved black walnut varieties selection from the wild and from limited breeding programs. In general, timber characteristics (fester growth) has been the focus of these programs dual use potential for black walnut varieties for timber and as a high quality net crop is an important characteristics.

There are several outstanding black walnut varieties known for their nut qualities, including sparrow’s Emma  Rupert “Hay” and Lawik corp the latter is often used as an Purdue University have developed a lene of black walnut known for their faster growth for timber purpose as predictable nut bearing habits (Carlson  Jones 1940). The Northern pecan is a native of the olio, Wabash and upper Mississippi inver basins and in recent years a number of outstanding selection have been made from the world, this Northern pecan is known for its high ,quality nut meats houch has more oil content and better flavor than the southern types, they do however have been much smaller units in comparison (country man et al 1985) while Native (Southern) pecan are not as common in Nigeria as in the Midwest may find adaptability in many parts of the states, including middle and southern Premont regions, Northern pecans are noted for their cold hardness, later flowering to avoid frost, and reduced nut maturely periods as compound to the southern pecan (Chenoweth  1995 black walnut) the Northern pecan selection have fair to good nut size (through at best 50 – 60% of the southern pecan). In addition the widow for grafting is narrow, and the propagator needs to have on hand the scion (top) wood of the selected variety colour the sap begins to flow. Recently several keger nurseries have begun wider propagation of northern pecan and black walnut and certain named varieties are now available as poilted and pre grafter tries. (Fowles 1965) The objective of the work was to evaluate the chemical composition of walnut (C)