1.1 Background to the Study

It is widely accepted that education is one of the leading tools for promoting economic development as it covers some processes the individuals go through to help them develop and use their potentials. Through education, individuals acquire knowledge, skills and attitude that are necessary for effective living. The main purpose of teaching at any level of education is thus to bring a major change in the learner. However, to facilitate the process of knowledge sharing, teachers must communicates appropriately in the classroom using interactive techniques that best suit specific objectives and lead to better academic outcomes for students (Adeyemi and Adu, 2010).

Modern theories of teaching suggest that the instructional process should be learner-centred for teaching and learning to be effective. In the traditional classroom, students do not demonstrate reasonable understanding of concepts while only a few of them dominate the instructional process because significant interaction is absent (Duggan, Palmer and Devitt, cited in Agbatokun, 2013).

There has been a paradigm shift in modern times to promote classroom interactiveness. In this context, a learning strategy that promotes interaction between the instructor and the learners, as well as among learners, is sought and seen as the pivotal to improving pupils’ communicative skills in the classroom and at length impact on their academic performance. In related instance to the above notion, Gamez (cited in Nwagbo and Okoro, 2015) portrays classroom interactions as one of the basic facilitators of improved understanding among learners. In an effort to bring home the benefits of classroom interaction, Oyinloye (2008) argues that if teachers provide learners with enough interactive opportunities in Nigerian schools, then students’ academic performance is bound to improve.

For both teachers and learners to be actively involved in the teaching and learning process, the method in use ought to create opportunity for the required interaction to take place. It is an interpersonal transaction between the teacher and student which occurs at different levels. This encompasses a lesson situation during which the teacher and students through their verbal and non-verbal actions have reciprocal effect on each other. In particular, the relationship between students and their teachers is an essential part of teaching and learning process and it is expected to have a great effect on students’ learning experiences (Nonye and Nkadi, 2013).

Classroom interaction refers to a technique consisting of objective and systematic observation of the classroom events for the study of the teacher’s classroom behaviour and the process of interaction going on inside the classroom (Eriba and Achor, 2010). It can be described as a classroom process in which teachers and students have a reciprocal effect upon each other through what they say and do in the classroom (Matelo, cited in Fatma and Mustafa, 2016). Hence, this research seeks to investigate classroom interactions and its impact on senior secondary school students’ academic performance in government with particular reference to Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The need for senior secondary school students in Lagos and Nigeria at large to reach their full academic and intellectual potentials presents a problem which this study intends to contribute knowledge to finding its solution. It is generally known that performance in Senior Secondary School has been deplorable over the years; this is so generally and in Government as a subject. The need to transform the senior secondary school level of the educational system in Nigeria necessitates the deployment of every necessary strategy to get the students improve their academic attainment levels, which in turn will reflect in their academic performance.

Ogbu (2011) while digging into the root causes of poor learning experiences among senior secondary school students asserts that classroom teachers were not effective in the discharge of their duty because emphasis were laid only on paper qualification. These teachers are not truly interactive in their classes and also lack the knowledge and application of classroom interaction patterns and analysis. The teaching or leadership styles of teachers has to be considered in the objective of finding solution to poor learning outcomes in senior secondary school. This informed the need to study the interaction pattern of government subject teachers in Nigeria secondary schools with the view to helping students improve their academic and intellectual outcomes.

Consequent upon the observed deterioration in the academic achievement, attitude and values of senior secondary school students offering government in schools, one wonders if the high failure rate and the poor quality of the students is not a reflection of the instructional quality in the schools. In other words, the ineffectiveness of the teacher as regards to the method of teaching employed in the classroom interaction with the students could be responsible for the observed poor performance of students and the widely acclaimed fallen standard of education in Nigeria (Duze, 2011; and Yahaya, 2012).

Hence, this research seeks to investigate classroom interactions and its impact on senior secondary school students’ academic performance in government with particular reference to Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State.

1.3 Purpose of Study

The general objective of this study is to examine the relationship between classroom interactions and senior secondary school students’ academic performance in government in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State. Other specific objectives of this study are:

1. To examine the impact of classroom interaction patterns on students’ academic performance in government.

2. To investigate the impact of classroom interactions on senior secondary school students’ learning experiences.

3. To find out if poor classroom interaction affects students’ learning outcomes in Lagos State.

1.4 Research Questions

The research will be guided by the following research questions:

This research project will be guided by the following research questions;

1. What is the impact of classroom interactions on senior secondary school students’ performance in government?

2. What is the impact of classroom interactions on students’ learning experiences?

3. Does poor classroom interaction affect students’ learning outcomes in Lagos State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The researcher intends to test the following hypotheses;

HO1: There is no significant relationship between classroom interaction and students’ academic performance in government

HO2: Classroom interaction does not have impact on students’ learning experiences

HO3: There is no significant impact of poor classroom interaction on students’ learning outcomes in Lagos State