COMMUNICATION AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE REALIZATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS

ABSTRACT

In a world where information is fast becoming instrument to development especially in business effort need to be focused in ways by which it could be improved upon. In realization of this fact, this research work was conducted on Communication as an instrument for the realization of organizational goals. Communication is crucial or important to every business in order to achieve its goals and objectives.

Without good and effective communication, it is difficult for anyone no matter how skillful to be successful in business; this work is divided into five chapters.

Chapter One of the research dealt with introduction, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance, research question, research hypotheses, limitation, conceptual clarification and organization of the work.

Chapter Two will deal with literature review, History of communication, definition of communication, Aims of communication, Types, Process, Communication in an organization, formal communication system and importance of communication to business and barriers.

Chapter Three will discuss the methodology of the research work.

Chapter Four presentation and analysis of data and,

Chapter Five is summary of the findings, conclusion and recommendations.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

CERTIFICATION i

DEDICATION ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii

ABSTRACT iv

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 4

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 6

SCOPE OF THE STUDY 6

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 7

RESEARCH QUESTIONS 8

RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 8

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 9

DEFINITION OF TERMS 9

ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK 13

REFERENCES 14

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 HISTORY OF COMMUNICATION 15

2.2 DEFINITION OF COMMUNICATION 16

2.3 AIMS OF COMMUNICATION 19

2.4 TYPES OF COMMUNICATION 20

2.5 PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION 26

2.6 COMMUNICATION IN AN ORGANIZATION 29

2.7 FORMAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 31

2.8 IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION 33

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2.9 BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION 36

2.10 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC 39

REFERENCES 44

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHOLOGY

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 45

3.2 POPULATION OF STUDY 45

3.3 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE 46

3.4 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY 48

3.5 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 48

REFERENCES 50

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION 51

4.2 PERSONAL DATA OF RESPONDENT 51

4.3 PRESENTATION/ ANALYSIS OF RESPONSES 55

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 SUMMARY 64

5.2 CONCLUSION 65

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 65

BIBLIOGRAPHY 67

APPENDIX 70

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Just as academics are intellectually strengthened by exchange of ideas through seminars, symposiums, conferences, workshop, etc so are businesses which no doubt, are profit-oriented strengthen financially by the exchange of information through correspondences with their employee, stakeholders and other business partners. This exchange of information – information relevant to the health and progress of the business – is known as communication. Thus, communication is one of the veritable ingredients of any business organization or ventures.

What then is communication?

Communication perse, is a multi-meaning word having a different meaning for whoever uses it. It refers to the process by which information is passed between individuals and/or organizations by means of previously agreed symbols. (Peter Little. 1965).

Communication can be defined in an organization as the process of conveying information and ideas from one person to another with a view to creating an understanding and bring about the realization of organization goal. Thus, Khate and Khan (1946) define communication as “the transfer of information from the sender to the receiver with the information being understood by the receiver”. Suffice to say that good communication is the accurate transmission and utilization of information from the sender to the receiver. John Fiske (1990) however classified these various definitions into two schools of thoughts.

The first school of though, according to him, refers to communication as “a process by which one person effects the behaviour or state of the mind of another”. The school obviously consider feedback as an essential part of the communication process, since the behaviour has to be seen as having taken place. Thus, the essence of communication, according to this school of thought, is the eliciting of a response from another individual.

The second school of thought is concerned with how messages and texts interact with people to produce meaning. This has to do with semiotics.

This study, however intends to consider communication within the canon of the first school of thought, because the success of the communication process depends to a large extent on the response given by the recipient of the message that have been sent. It thus follows that if the effect of the message on the recipient is different from or the magnitude is lesser than the one intended by the source, the very essence of communication would be lost.

It is obvious that communication occupies a vital place in administrative process. This presupposes that communication is an integral part of management and administration. Studies show that over 75 percent managers and administrators spend time collecting and send information. Again, this points to the fact that managers must be effective communicator and good seekers of information which enable them to guide and direct their organization well. Negative result such as mistakes, wasted resources and duplicated efforts can be traced to poor communication.

Communication is a powerful tool that can be used by manager to develop and sustain a smoothly, functioning team, directing the employees and for coordinating their activities for the realization of organizational goal and objective, without effective communication, a proper supervisor-subordinate relationship maybe jeopardized. Base on the above definition combined with the experience had during constant visit with the First Bank of Nigeria PLC, Benin City on how communication has serve as an instrument for the realization of the organizational goal, hence the research work is to point out how communication can help in achieving the goals of an organization.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This research is to ascertain how communication serves as an instrument for the realization of organizational set goal. With my visit, I discovered the damages that unawareness of what communication is.

In some organizations employees do not get information on time, while some do not react to information communicated to them as a result of all these the organization possibilities of achieving the objective is very rare when information that needs immediate action are delayed or not responded to. Based on these, the study is designed to find out whether communication is really and instrument for the realization of organizational goal.

The problem to be investigated is how advantageous is effective communication to the achievement of organizational set goal. The problem is being broken down into the following sub-problem for easier investigation:

Does communication ensures mutual working relationship between management and staff of First Bank of Nigeria Plc?

Does the delay in solving the problem of communication denial of the realization of organizational goal?

How can effective communication system amongst various leveled of staff enhance greatly the performance of the workers?

Does effective communication speed the achievement of organizational goal?

How can organization improve communication for the realization of its goal?

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study is to accomplish among other things the role of communication in an organization and determine the ways of improving communication in an organization with a view to achieving the organizational goal.

The work is also to study how and to what extent communication is an instrument for realizing the goal of an organization.

The study will also aim at looking at what likely barriers that would affect communication for not realizing the set goal.

To suggest ways of addressing perceived barriers in communication in any organization so as to avoid hindrance in achieving organizational goal.

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The work is base on communication as an investment for the achievement of organizational goal. However, the case study is limited to a study of First Bank Plc, Benin branch.

The study involves how communication serves as a tool for achieving the stated objectives and goals of the organization, hence the work focus on a branch of First bank of Nigeria Plc in carryout the study, which will be useful for the success of other organization in achieving their set up goals and objectives

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The importance of the study is on the fact that the work will serve as a reference point for students, researchers, administrative officers, labour official as well as the entire public in achieving their goal through effective communication.

Also, the study is carryout will intention of creating concerned awareness for the use of communication, ways of improving it, as well as the barriers to communication in an organization.

1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Can the failure of realizing organizational goal be traced to poor communication?

Can communication be used as an instrument for the realization of organizational goal?

How can motivation of workers in an organization with communication bring about the achievement of set goal?

Does free flow of communication between the management and staff helps to encourage the realization of organizational goal?

1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

The study is based on the following hypotheses:

a) That communication improves workers performance.

That Communication creates good interpersonal relationship between management and labour.

That communication reduces conflict in an organization.

Good communication is related to adequate communication equipment.

Good communication leads to organizational efficiency and effectiveness.

1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The challenges which may likely confront the research work are constraints, relating to verification of facts on available materials, the un-cooperative attitude of some staff of First Bank of Nigeria Plc for researchable materials among other things.

Despite all these limitations, the research work would still be carried out with materials available within the researchers reach.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Various terms are used in this study and there is the need to define some of such terms in order to make them easier to understand.

Administration: According to Woodrow Wilson (1887), administration is the “element of co-operative human effort toward reaching some goals accepted by those engaged in the endeavor or it can be define as concerned with the means for the achievement of prescribed tends”.

Canon: A list of literary works considered to be permanently established as being of the highest quality.

Communication: This is the transmission of information, skills, knowledge, ideas, emotions, feeling and attitude between persons, unit, organization or even a state.

Investment: The use of money, time and effort into another thing with aim of getting out something that will serve as interest to the person who invest time, effort and money.

Jeopardize: To risk damaging or destroying something important.

Management: These are the top level hierarchy personnel charged with the function of directing and controlling the workforce in the organization to achieve the organizational objective which in many cases, border on growth and profit.

Organization: An organization comes into existence when two or more people come together for a purpose. Therefore, three conditions need to be met for an organization to exist.

a) There must be people.

b) These people must be communicating (interacting) among one another in some form or pattern.

c) This communication must be geared towards the realization of predetermined group objective. The necessary condition for an organization is therefore, interaction for individual and group objectives. The quality of this communication determined the effectiveness and sometimes efficiency of the organization.

Understanding organization therefore, entails an understanding of the concepts of “co-ordination”, ‘common goal, ‘division of labour’, and integration (Edger H. Schein 1980).

Semiotic: The study of the ways in which people communicate through signs and symbols. Someone who studies this is called a semiotician.

Supervisor: Someone who is in charge of an activity, a place or a group of people such as workers or students.

Tend: To change or develop in a particular direction.

ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK

Chapter One of the research dealt with introduction, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance, research question, research hypotheses, limitation, conceptual clarification and organization of the work.

Chapter Two will deal with literature review, History of communication, definition of communication, Aims of communication, Types, Process, Communication in an organization, formal communication system and importance of communication to business and barriers.

Chapter Three will discuss the methodology of the research work.

Chapter Four presentation and analysis of data and,