In writing an abstract, the researcher needs to write on how he or she intends carrying out a study. The topic of this project is the effect of communication Gap in the Achievement of organizational Goal using Nigeria Bottling Company Plc Onitsha as a case study. Having gone to the Nigeria Bottling Company Plc for a research on how I intend carrying out this work.

The objective of the work is find out the extent to which the effect of communication Gap contributes to organizational peace/war.

The purpose of this study are as follows;
– Find out how effective communication is as one of management function (its effects on smooth performance of an organization).
– To examine the must appropriate way for smooth performance of an organization.
– The lack of paper communication facilities can hinder or promote using information effectively in a give concept.

This method of data collection is mostly firm primary sources i.e questionnaires will be administered to both executive and non executive staff of the organization.
This project is divided into five chapter with specific topic chapter deals with background of study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, scope and limitations of the study, statement of problem. It can be seen that the reader is immediately brought into the main body at the research work in this chapter.
– Chapter two deals with the frame work, which consist of literature review meaning of communication. Also the reader will learn about purpose of communication, importance, process etc.
– Chapter three will be based on the design of study which specifically deals with sources of data.
– Chapter four will enable the reader to know how to present analyzed the data
– Chapter five then consists of summary of findings, recommendations and conclusions.
My recommendation will be made in order to know whether it can help to overcome some of the problems of communication gap in achieving organizational goal.


Title page
Approval page
Table of contents
List of content
List of figures

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Limitation of the study
1.8 Definition of terms

2.0 Literature review
2.1 Introduction
(Other function of the topic)
Reference should be by APA style.

3.0 Research design and methodology
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research design
3.3 Sources/methods of data collection
3.4 Population and sample size
3.5 Sample technique
3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
3.7 Method of data analysis

4.0 Presentation and analysis of data
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Presentation of data
4.3 Analysis of data
4.4 Interpretation of results

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary of findings
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Recommendation



This chapter of the project work discloses the information about the effect of communication gap in this achievement of organization foal.

Organization goal is always specified in any organization and entails the purpose why the organization is established. To achieve this specified goal must be attain through proper application of its principles which might includes, planning, organizing, co-ordinating and controlling the resources of the organizations its personal.


Communication is a very vital tools in carrying out our day today activities which makes saying that if you don’t say here I am nobody will say there you are unique and out standing from every business firms world wide today. Everyone needs communication with people around to share experience jobs, frustration, hopes and fears. From childhood we all learn how to communicate, as children, we able to recognize and identify happiness and annoyance in our parents faces or words. And at school, we learn how to write and interpret number and diagram, we also come to understand the silent language of communication expressed in false, gestures and body movement that is the body language of non verbal communication. This arrays of skills has helped us to be active members of the family, school and work group.

It is only when people have come to know others through work, play or study that they prepared to open up and to trust others with a share of themselves, their inner thought reactions and feeling.

According to Chester Bernard the first executive function is to maintain a system of communication which is fundamental to the existence of any organization communication function which is the means by which social inputs are fed into social system or organization the means by which behavior is modified, changed is affected, information is made productive and goals are achieved be it in business, military etc.

Every organization is established to achieve a set objective for example certain business organization are set up for profit making by the provision of goods and service. While are set up mainly for the provision of service by training high level of manpower for both in the public and private sector of the economy.

However the defined objective of any organization have to be achieved through the instrumentality of individual person who from the basic unit of the organization. The peoples readiness to perform for the attainment of goals and objective active of an organization.

As defined by Drucker, management is concern with the direction and control of an enterprise and involves planning and the direction of the work of others. These managerial functions convert be successfully carried out in the absence of communication. Brown defined communication as the process of transmitting ideas and thought one person to another for the person receiving the communication, Drucker made the following statement. The manager has a specific tool, information. He does not “handle” people, he motivates, guides and organize people to do their own no muter whether the manager’s job is engineer, accounting or marketing effectiveness to a large extent depends on his ability to listen and to read or his ability to speak and write it needs skill in getting his thinking across to other people as well as skill in finding out what other people are after.

The above contribution by Druker implies that communication is needed to convery information necessary for an on going operation and secondly that communication can have an impact on the attitude of people in the organization and consequently on the general performance of the organization. Managers spends a lot of their time in order con-ordinate human and physical resources of the an organization into effective and efficient working units. It is only when the human and material element of and organization is harnessed into a working while that the objective goals of the organization can be achieved.

Before any organization decision can be made relevant information, facts feeling and ideas must be communicated within all organization. In recent years, communication has been tipped as a management function because of its growing importance in large organization and also because it has been realized that communication is not forced but has to be learnt.

Language, which is deemed the must important tool of communication in organization, have many feature which limit their assuredly in communication. Available statistics show that there are more than three language in Lagos state alone while the entire nation is said to have about 3000 different language. It was observed that in the organization where this research was carried out, workers were selected from almost all the ethnic group in Nigeria with different social and cultureal backgrounds.

This shows that the rate of communicating effectively in organization cannot be predicted correctly. As S.I Hayakawg had it, the meaning of words is in the words, they are in use and no word has exactly the same meaning.


The problem of communication between persons, organization and the society as a whole can be classified into four.

  1. people do not know how to communicate:- There are proper channels of communication they are channels by which communication should be forwarded to the subordinated. An important need of a worker is to be informed about what is happening around him in his work place. Communication and information therefore are important factors in cultivating and maintaining a mutually satisfactory relationship between an employer and the employee.
  2. No availability of proper communication facilities:- There are proper facilities for communicating due to the fact that the infrastructural facilities are not efficient for instance, the telephone facilities are not functional all the time, the radio messages, fax etc. are not working.
  3. People are ignorant of what to communicate:– Instead of communicating what is expected to be communicate, people do not know the organizational goals are, so they tend to direct their attention on what would not maximize the organization’s goals.
  4. People are ignorant of the need to communicate:– people normally imply that the lower hierarchy knows what to do but sometimes the subordinate needs to be advised on what to do before they can do it the way the upper hierarchy wants it done.


From all that has written above, it is the aim of this study to take a segment of the seaport (Nigerian port Authority) and study the impact of communication and the achievement of its goal.

To find how effective communication is one of the management functions, that is the impact on the smooth running of the organization.

To examine the communication methods and find out the most appropriate way for the smooth performance of the organization.

How lack of proper communication facilities can hinder and or promote passing information effectively between and among people on organization.


  • Of what impact has effective communication have to do with running an organization?
  • Is there adequate consulation between management and union?
  • What communication methods is appropriate for something performance of an organization?
  • Are duties delegated in your organization?
  • How can inadequate communication facilities hinder the effectiveness performance of passing information among people in organization?


Having stated the problems, the significance of this research is the extent to which it tries to identify and provide solution to surmount some of the problems. It is hoped that the organization uses as a study and other organization, individual, and association will benefit from the research result and findings as well as the recommended situation.


The scope of this study is very wide if it has to be carried out in all the scaparts in the country. This study covers the activities of the Lagos ports complex (IPC) Apapa Quays (APO)

In this study, attempt was made to examine the impact of communication gap the achievement of organization goal.


The study is limited based on the fact that is not time and material resources to cover the while nation. This study is limited to Lagos Ports Complex (LPC) Apapa Quays (APQ) and the findings may not reflect the situation in the while country. These finding may not be valid for the whole ports in Nigeria, but by and large what happens in the ports in Apapa Quays can be said to apply to other seaports in the country.


The following terms used in this study should be taken to mean the following.

Communication:- Communication can be defined as a means of transfer of ideas, information, facts, thought and understanding from one person to another.

Co-operation:- This is the understanding that exists between a group of individual which makes them get unified in pursuance of a common goal.

Information:- This is something which knowledge on form of fact.

Effectiveness:- Thus can be defined as the ability or power to have a notiveable ore desired impact effect.

Efficiency:- This is the state or quality of being able to produce a desired or satisfactory result well at a reduced time and cost.

Impact:- This is the force exerted by one object when stricking another.

Motivation:- This term can be defined as the act or state of being motivated need and purpose.

Attitude:- This is the position of manner of standing of body a manner of feeling and behaving.

Gap:- Is an empty space between tow objects or between two parts of an object.

Productivity:- This is the measured ability to grow things or the calculated of making goods.

Productivity ratio:- The ratio between the goods and services produced in relation to resources employed.

Idea:- A picture in the mind or an opinion.

Encode:- Turn a message into codes an agreed arrangement by which certain signs are given a special secret.