COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MICROBIAL LOAD OF THE ENUGU MAIN WATER PRODUCTION AND WATER AVAILABLE TO IMT CAMPUS II HOSTEL

ABSTRACT           

Samples of water from the different hostels in campus II and other source of water production namely Ajali-owa water, from bore hole 9th mile and spring water from GRA water board were water collected and analysed using total plate count and multiple tube fermentation techniques coliform.  The results shows no coliforms in production water from Ajali-owa and in GRA spring water reservoir and no coliform in 9th mile bore hole water, 14 organism and 149 cfu/ml plate counts were obtained from tap water in IMT campus II hostel 7 coliform and Tocful/ml plate count from well water and 28 coliform and 280 cfu/ml plate count from spillage waste water.  These results obtained show that tap water  consumed in IMT campus II did not meet with NAFDAC and WHO standards.  Preventive measures such as proper treatment of these water should be encourage and all pipes in campus II should be checked for leakages

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1       Aims / objectives of the study

1.2       Statement of problems

1.3       Hypothesis

1.4       Scope of limitation

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review

2.1       The major group of biological Pollutants of water

2.2       Source of water supply

2.3       Source of water pollution

2.4       Treatment of water sample

2.5       International standard for drinking water

2.6       Diseases from water

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Materials & methods

3.0       Materials

3.1       Media preparation

3.2       Collection of samples

3.3       Collection of samples

3.4       Methods of water analysis

3.5       Determination of PH

3.5.1        Determination of bacteria of the coliform

3.5.2        Culture techniques

3.5.3        Plate count technique

3.5.1        Presumption coliform (multiple tube fermebtation

3.5.4    Confirmatory test

3.5.5    Completed test

3.5.6    Test for indole

3.5.7    Methyl red test

3.5.8    Sugar test

3.5.9    Oxidase test

3.5.10 Catakase test

3.5.11 The slide cougulase test

3.5.12 Gram stain techniques

3.5.13 Detection of faecal stredtococci

3.5.14 Detection of escherichi coli test

3.5.15 Organism suspected after gram staining

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion

CHAPTER SIX

6.1       Conclusion

6.2       Recommendation

References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Water is a liquid mineral.  It consist of two atoms of hydrogen combined with one atom of oxygen. Water is a tasteless, odourless and colourless mobile liquid except in large volume where it appears blue.  It has a melting point of OoC (320f) and a boiling point of 1000C (2120f).  water is a basic necessity of life, in the absence higher animals survive only but a few hours or days.  It has several uses such  as  washing  cooking, food  processing ,swimming, and  among  others. Out  of   these  uses, drinking  of  water  seems  to  be  the  most   sensitive  as  it  could  have  a  direct   deleterious  impact  on  health  of  human  beings.

Therefore, drinking  water  should  be  potable  free  diseases, or  toxic  substance (Beren 1991) .

Water is portable when it is colourless.  Odourless, or tasteless and also free from poisonous, corroding, staining substances as well as disease causing organisms (Cruich 1972).  The problem of providing safe and adequate water is as old as life on earth.  Water can be made unfit or unsafe for drinking it contamination occurs either by nature or activities of human beings.

Perhaps the greatest danger associated with drinking water is contamination by human  excrement (Forest 1979).  In most cases, the pollution/contamination is hardly severe and is not particularly detrimental to health.

Thus a few substances and microbes that are health hazard do occur in water, and can cause illness or even death.  From microbiological point of view, the pathogens most frequently transmitted through water supply ranges from ultrasmall virus to the microscopic bacteria and relatively large cysts entamoeba histolytica.  These organism cense infections of intestinal tract, when consumed censing amebic dysentery, and Giardia lamblia is a protozoa responsible for Giardiasis.  Defective plumbing for example was the cause of outbreak during the world fair in Chicago 1933 (Garelick 1987) water borne disease cause acute diarrhea, often last 2-3 months.  The most common waterborne disease can be by bacteria includes typhoid fever, paratyphoid.  Asiatic cholera and bacterial dysentery.

Other disease that may be transmitted by water include brucellosis, shigellosis, these disease are consuming.  Untreated water (Hetolett 1921) various countries of the world and the world Health organisation (WHO) has set up standards for water quality against which the level of pollution can be assessed.  The world Health organization (WHO) National Agency for food and Drug Administration control (NAFDAC), standard for potable water include the following, that in 100ml of water coliform bacteria should be absent, total plate count of bacteria growth should be 100 CFU/ML of water.  Hence the sanitary Quality of water should not be overlooked since  contaminated water can cause health hazards when consumed.

According to guideline for drinking water quality of WHO (1998)

TABLE 1

WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION STANDARD FOR DRINKING WATER

PH5.0 – 9.0

COLOUR

15 Hazen unit

Dissolved solids

500 mg/l

Total Hardness

500 mg/l

Calcium

75 mg/l

Iron

0.3 mg/l

Chloride

200 mg/l

Nitrate

45 mg/l

Coliform

10 colonies

1.1  AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objective of this projects is to make comparative analysis of Enugu state water cooperation provide against supplies.

To identify contamination microbial advice on measures to control pollution  of water bodies etc.

1.2  STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

The treated water produced by Enugu state water co-operation could be contaminated by defective plumbing which cause the rush of water out of the pipe forming pull mixed with sewage matters.  The pull eventually suck back through the burst pipe into the pipeline being distributed to various location and collected as drinking water.

1.3   HYPOTHESIS

HO:    there is difference in the microbial load of water from Enugu state water operation at point of production against the load as the point of supply and consumption.

HI:   There is statistical differences between the microbial load of water from the Enugu state water co-operation as the production point against the load as supply and consumption point.