CONSTRUCTION OF 500W 12V INVERTER CHARGER – ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING PROJECT

ABSTRACT

An inverter is a system which is capable of converting DC voltage from a battery into AC voltage. The Inverter constructed converts 12V dc to 220V Ac. It consists of an oscillator section using 8V dc to produce 50Hz sine wave. The sine wave is amplified by Tip 41 and used to drive IRPF250 MOSFET power transistors capable of delivering 500W nominally. The mosfet switches the 12V dc across the high current transformer which then produces the Ac at its output. The output of the transformer is a square wave but has been converted to a near sine wave using some RC circuit.
There is also a provision in the system to charge the battery when PHCN is on as the inverter is expected to function only PHCN is off.

TABLE OF CONTENT 

Cover page

Title page I

Approval II

Dedication III

Acknowledgement IV

Abstract V

Table of content VI

List of figures VII

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background of the stud……………………….2

1.1 Statement of problem…………………………..

1.2 Aims and objectives……………………………4

1.3 Scope of work …………………………………4

1.4 Importance of work……………………………..4

1.5 Organization of study …………………………6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Brief History of Inverters………………………8

2.1 Inverter application and uses ………………….8

2.2 Types of inverter ………………………………9

viii

2.3 Inverter versus other related appliances………………..10

2.3.1 Generator and inverter………………………………….10

2.3.2 Inverter and ups…………………………………………12

2.4 Mode of operation of an inverter……………………….13

2.4.1 When the AC mains supply is available………………..14

2.4.2 When the AC mains supply is not available ……………14

2.5 Component Analysis ……………………………………16

2.5.1 Ideal diodes ………………………………………………16

2.5.2 Resistors…………………………………………………….18

2.5.3 Capacitors………………………………………………..19

2.5.4 Transistors………………………………………………..20

2.5.5 Voltage regulator …………………………………………..22

2.5.6 Transformer …………………………………………….23

2.5.7 Relay…………………………………………………….24

2.5.7.1 Battery………………………………………………..26

CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM OPERATION

3.0 Block diagram and operation…………………………….27

3.1 When the AC mains supply is available…………………….27

3.2 When the AC mains supply is unavailable………………….28

3.3 Complete circuit diagram ………………………………..33

3.3.1 System operation using circuit diagram……………..34

CHAPTER FOUR: DESIGN ANALYSIS AND IMPLEMENTATION

4.0 Design specifications and requirements ……………35

4.1 Design of the power supply unit ……………………35

4.2 Design of 50 Hz oscillator…………………………..37

4.3 Days (hours) of autonomy …………………………39

4.4 Depth of discharge……………………………………40

CHAPTER FIVE: TESTING AND RESULT

5.0 Drive or amplifier test………………………………..43

5.1 Oscillator circuit test…………………………………43

5.3 Transformer test………………………………………44

5.4 Entire system testing………………………………….44

5.4 Battery charging evaluation ………………………….44

5.5 System evaluation ……………………………………44

5.6 Packaging …………………………………………….45

5.7 Cost of project ……………………………………….46

5.8 Maintenance cost …………………………………….49

5.9 Running cost …………………………………………49

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION

6.0 Conclusion ……………………………………………50

6.1 Recommendation …………………………………….50

6.2 Problem encountered …………………………………51

6.3 Limitation/ Constraints………………………………..51

6.4 Suggestion for further improvement ………………….51

Reference

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 2.0 Ideal diode structure

Fig 2.1 Symbol of zener diode

Fig 2.2 Symbol of light emitting diode

Fig 2.3 symbol of electrolytic capacitor

Fig 2.4 Paper capacitor

Fig 2.5 Variable capacitor

Fig 2.6 Symbol of enhancement mosfet F

ig 2.7 Symbol of npn transistor

Fig 2.8 Symbol of voltage regulator (7808 Ic)

Fig 2.9 Core type transformer

Fig 2.10 Symbol of a transformer

Fig 3.1 Block diagram of basic inverter

Fig 3.2 Complete circuit diagram of 500 watts/inverter