CONSTRUCTION OF AN AUTOMATIC CHANGE OVER SWITCH (3.7KVA)
The Change Over Switch I a device used to switch off a power supply and subsequently switch on another power supply. Basically it is aimed at switching on a more convenient power supply to the load.
Since it switches on power to the load, precautions has to be taken while choosing the type of Change Over Switch, while selecting the appropriate size, the control of arcing has to be put into consideration.
A good switch should be the one whose contact is made in such a way as to limit the arc formation by having no contact-bounce and by having contacts made of good conductive, corrosion resistance and wear resistance materials.
A good change over switch must have adequate insulation and must be so constructed and located as not to constitute a potential hazard.
A good change over switch should also have tight contact points so as to limit or eliminate the possibility of partial contact at the contact point. The partial contact leads to over heating of the components and may lead to fire outbreak in the entire room.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Due to inconsistent supply of power, there is a growing need for an alternative source of power supply. This has lead to heavy capital investment in a bid to suppress power failure and ensure regular power supply for the industry, hospitals, schools and homes. The problem of power failure can be checkmated with the use of stand-by generating set.
An Engineering Author, “Tony Rudkin” said in his book titled “Upgraded Signal Source with Improved Performance and Reliability” that the cost and depredation associated with breakdown vary from one application to the other, and in some cases, the user has little choice but to ensure that a stand-by unit is available to take over on event of failure of primary system.
If some of these big firm do not make provisions for stand-by power source, frustration could set in which may lead to the closure of business and thus throwing workers into unemployment. Also in the case of hospital, undergoing a surgical operation and power supply suddenly go off, the patient might loose his or her life due to the power outage.
Furthermore, if the president of the country is making nationwide broadcast and all of a sudden power went off in the transmitting station, it would be viewed as an attempt to sabotage the government ruling and some people must pay for it.
In his book, Tony Rudkin also said that the depredation caused by such reduce efficiency of the organization and leads to a great deal of frustration.
Sequel to the rate at which more sophisticated electrical/electronics gadgets are being procured and installed in our homes, hospitals and business premises, there is a justifiable need for a faster and more reliable change over system in an event of power outage.
In view of these considerations, this project is aimed at designing and constructing a workable automatic change over switch with a phase failure detecting circuit also known as “Automatic Mains Failure” which switches on the head from power Holding Company (PHC) to a generator when power fails and from generator to PHC when power comes back.
1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The automatic change over switch, the switch aimed at achieving the following automatic actions;
a) To change power over to generator
b) To change back to PHC
c) To change the generator.
The automatic change over unit can be operated in single or three phase system. The automatic change over switch has the following advantages;
a) It minimizes damages to lives/equipment since it has its own monitoring system and its switching requires no human contact with the switch, thus eliminating human error.
b) It reduces its change over timing to the minimum due to its fast response to power outage.
c) It maintains high quality of service through its fast and prompt response.
Moreover, the size and captivity of the unit will depend upon the load for which it will be used. The unit is also portable, easy, convenient and safe to install.