CONSTRUCTION OF AUTOMATIC WATER LEVEL CONTROLLER FOR BOTH OVERHEAD AND UNDERGROUND TANKS

ABSTRACT

Automatic water level controller for both overhead and underground tank is designed to monitor the level of water in a tank. It displays the level of water and when it is at the lowest level; a pump is activated automatically to refill the tank. When the tank is filled to its maximum capacity, the pump is automatically de-energized. Several circuits are put together to ensure proper working of this design, and the block diagram includes the supply unit, the microprocessor unit, the sensor unit, the display unit and the pump drives unit. The power unit is responsible for turning on the entire circuit. Some components are used to set up power unit and they include; a 15v step down transformer, a bridge rectifier circuit, a smoothing capacitor and a voltage regulator IC. The microprocessor (AT89S50) controls virtually all the actions carried out in this design. (AT89S50) is used in the design. The sensor unit is responsible for sensing the level of water and transfer the current position of water to the microprocessor. The display unit in the circuit is used to physically show the current position of water in the tank, the properties of seven segment display are been used.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 BACKGROUND

The project “automatic water level control with an automatic pump control system” is design to monitor the level of liquid in the tank. The system has an automatic pumping system attached to it so as to refill the tank once the liquid gets to the lower threshold, while offering the pump once the liquid gets to the higher threshold. Sustainability of available water resource in many reason of the word is now a dominant issue. This problem is quietly related to poor water allocation, inefficient use, and lack of adequate and integrated water management. Water is commonly used for agriculture, industry, and domestic consumption. Therefore, efficient use and water monitoring are potential constraint for home or office water management system. Moreover, the common method of level control for home appliance is simply to start the feed pump at a low level and allow it to run until a higher water level is reached in the water tank. This water level control, controls monitor and maintain the water level in the overhead tank and ensures the continuous flow of water round the clock without the stress of going to switch the pump ON or OFF thereby saving time, energy, water, and prevent the pump from overworking Besides this, liquid level control systems are widely used for monitoring of liquid levels in reservoirs, silos. Proper monitoring is needed to ensure water sustainability is actually being reached with disbursement linked to sensing and automation, such programmatic approach entails microcontroller based automated water level sensing and controlling or using 555 timer IC.

1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal or objectives of which the designed device is expected to accomplish is to build an automatic water level control with automatic control system. In this project sensors are placed at different level of the tank and with the aid of this sensors, the micro-controller monitor the level of the liquid at any particular point in time, some of the objectives are
1. to design an automatic water monitoring system
2. to incorporate an interactive medium between the end user and the machine
3. to prevent over labor of the pumping machine and prevent it from getting bad
4. to avoid wastage of water
5. since the demand of electricity is very high, automatic water level control saves energy

1.2 JUSTIFICATION

Automatic water level monitor came into existence because of human error and inconsistence that is associated with manually operated water pumping machine. This is because it takes time for individual who is manually operating the water pump to turn off the pumping machine and this may cause water spillage and at times the individual might not know that the water level has drop so low until the tank is completely empty. This was the problem that leads to the development of the ideal of an automatic water level control and automatic pump short down.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The project was design to automatically control the pump which ensures constant reserve of water in the reservoir. The scope of the design was keep concise and simple to in other not to introduce unnecessary complexities and render it generally uncomfortable. The system does not have attached complex peripheral device which though impossible for the detail printable information has been excluded for reasons of affordability material of low range and less accurate performances as opposed to a well built automatic water pump was used to achieve this aim, the automatic water level controller detect and control the water in the tank.

1.4 CONSTRAINTS

The biggest setback experience during the course of this project is difficulties in finding the design of the project, secondly sourcing of material and component I used for the project were difficult to find like pump and buffer for programming

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE PROJECT

It is significant to know that this design is limited to 12v, 5amps electric pump and cannot be used to control industrial water pump above 5 amps.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OVERVIEW

This project report writing is written is designed in such a way that each chapter is related to the next as shown below:

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AUTOMATIC WATER LEVEL CONTROL WITH PUMP - FREE PROJECT TOPICS

FIG 1.0 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AUTOMATIC WATER LEVEL CONTROL WITH PUMP

1.6 PROJECT REPORT ORGANISATION

The organization of this project report is well detailed and vast in its coverage it covers all the activities encountered during the research work. The first chapter of this work took care of the introduction, aims and objective, scope, Justification and project report organization. Chapter two highlight on literature review chapter three highlight on description of system and some of the component used were emphasized chapter four highlight on the system design and implementation, construction, testing and packaging of the pump. Chapter five is all about the conclusions problem encountered recommendation and cost of the project.

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