CONSTRUCTION OF VENTURI METER IN ENGINEERING
The project was on the construction of a Venturi meter. Venturi meter being a measuring instruction was used in determining the flow rate of fluid down a pipe or the rate of discharge in a pipeline and is often fixed permanently at different sections of the piple line to know the discharge there.
The research was made possible by the consultation of the internet, textbooks, and relevant information from friends. The construction was based on these dimensions.
Throat diameter – 2.5cm
Thickness of metal sheet – 0.2cm
Length of diverging – 28.6m
Length of converging 24.cm.
The main purpose of this study was to respond to both the reality and perception of Venturi meter, also the scope and the uses are reviewed such as, how it works, it important and uses.
During the construction of these Venturi meter machines like the drilling machines, smothering machines, were used in carrying out major operations of how drilling and smoothing enhanced the work with less time spent in operation like this.
Also manual tools and equipment such as the hack, saw, hand file, meter rule and maters was found to consume more time and back precious to the job.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Objective of the study
1.3 Scope of the study
1.4 Method of Research
1.5 Significance of the study
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Theory of Venturi meter
2.2 The characteristics of Venturi meter
2.3 Types of Venturi meter
2.4 Advantages of Venturi meter
2.5 Disadvantages of Venturi meter
2.6 The uses of Venturi meter
3.0 Construction Method
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
A Venturi meter or Venturi flow meter is a device used to measure the velocity, or flow rate, of fluid flowing through a pipeline. The Venturi meter constricts the flow using a Herschel Venturi tube. As the liquid flows through the pipeline, the device measures the pressure of liquid before it enters the Venturi tube and as it exist the constricted area. These measurements are then compared to figure the volumetric flow rate of the fluid. The flow meter is commonly used in plumbing applications to determine the flow of fluids such as water, liquid propane, and oil.
For this procedure the Venturi tube is typically a long pipe with conically shaped entry and exist points. The entry point is usually a thirty degree cone which constricts to five degree cone at the exit. The Venturi meter result is less degradation of the head pressure due to the tube’s design.
The Venturi mater can accurately measure flow rate using Bernoulli’s principle. Bernoulli stated that the velocity of liquid increases in direct proportion to a decrease in pressure. When the liquid is forced through a constricted pipeline, it begins to make at a higher rate of speed because the majority of the pressure is held behind the constriction.
A common example of Bernoulli’s principle in action can be found in the nozzle of a garden hose. As the nozzle is turned fully open, the water glows slowly and usually falls just a short distance from the nozzle. When the nozzle is turned towards the closed position, it restricts the flow of the water and increases its velocity. The pressure held behind the nozzle builds and the velocity can carry the water for great distances.
The Venturi meter precisely calculates the volumetric flow rate of a fluid using a complete formula. this computation considers the radius of the pipeline, whether or not the measured liquid is compressible, and the total volume of fluid present. Various coefficient are added to compensate for the viscosity of the fluid, changes in the conical angles of the Venturi and other variables. When these numbers are calculated, along with the pressure measurements taken by the Venturi meter, an accurate description of the liquid flow rate can be ascertained.
In some years past, the measurement of the amount of fluids which flows through pipes was very difficult, simply because, there was past, it was discovered that most of air industrial process or operations require fluid and the quantity of these fluids needed to be known for effective operations and to minimize issue. This stimulated the scientists to go into a research work, which led to the discovery of these metering devices or instrument. Lenode de Vin was the first scientist to discover ‘Orifice meter’ in the year 1452 – 1519, during his study of hydraulics of water flow in channels and he decided to use the orifice meter in his research. He also observed that the meter was good for the study of fluid. He also noticed that the introduction of an orifice meter into a pipeline is necessary as this causes a change in the kinetic of the fluid.
Furthermore, still in the field of hydraulic experiment, a scientists called “VENTURI” after 7000 AD discovered a Venturi meter. Also, before the beginning of the 20th century, a scientist called “HAREHEL DEUTSHER” discovered the flow nozzle in their various studies of hydraulics.
However, flow meters used for measurement has become a device with the advent of the industrial age because of the need for controlled flow process, accounting methods and more efficiently in operation and also because of the realization that controls flow rate is simple and convenient method to other process variable such as temperature and pressure. But in this project write up, more emphasis will be placed on the working principles of the Venturi meter, the advantage and disadvantage and finally it uses.
1.2 AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study to applying basic knowledge of fluid mechanism chemical engineering design and how to construct Venturi flow meter.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this project is to produce detail and distinctive format of construction of Venturi flow meter.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this project is mainly concerned with the construction and design of Venturi flow meter when producing a Venturi meter.
1.5 METHOD OF RESEARCH
Construction of Venturi meter was born out of several workshops, seminars and information from advanced textbook, internet that is related to the flow of a Venturi meter and its constructional elements.