CONSTRUCTION OF SIMPLE DISTILLATION UNIT
Distillation unit is the judgment used for the separation of liquid mixture depending on the volatility of the component. It has the top section and bottom section. In the top section this is where more volatile component goes and the bottom section is where the divider or less volatile component are continued therefore when feed are introduced into the column the vapour flows up the column and liquid counter currently down into the column the vapour on plate. Liquid reaching the bottom of the column is partially in a heated recoiled to prove boil up which is sent back to the column. The reminder of the bottom liquid is withdrawn as bottom product.The vapour reaching the top of the column is cooled by condenser and to liquid is returned to the column as reflux to provide liquid over flow the remainder of the overhead stream is withdrawn as distillate or overhead. The overall separation achieved between the distillate and the bottom depends familiarly on the relative volatility of the components. The greater the relative volatility the easier separation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problems
1.3 Aims/Purpose of the study
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the study
1.5 Method of Research
1.6 Significance of the study
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 The theory of Distillation
2.2.1 Simple Distillation
2.2.2 Fractional Distillation
2.2.3 Steam Distillation
2.2.4 Vacuum Distillation
2.2.5 Short Path Distillation
2.3 Distillation Process
2.3.1 Binary Distillation
2.3.2 Multi-component Distillation
2.3.3 The bath Distillation Unit
2.4 Importance of Simple Distillation
3.0 Selection of engineering material for construction
3.1 Classification of material for construction
3.2 Effect of Temperature on the mechanical properties
3.3 Corrosion and Erosion resistance
3.4 Economics consideration (cost)
4.0 Fabrication Procedure
4.1 Dimension for the Distillation Unit
4.2 Method of Fabrication
5.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Hotland etal (1999) that distillation was one of the mankind earliest form of water treatment and it is still a poplar treatment solution. throughout the world today Holland etal (1999) said that in ancient days, the Greece used this process on their slip to convert sea drinking water. He also went further to say that water was classified for use in Ranbkiki tea ceremonies.
Holland etal (1999), said that distilled water was still used as drinking water on ship and in a rid parts of the world, and to treat water in other areas that was formed by natural and un-natural contaminants.
Furthermore, distillation was one of the water treatment technology that must completely reduce the widest range of drinking water contaminants. He now said that basic process was responsible for the hydrologic cycle. Holland etal (1999), also said that the sum causes water to evaporate from surface source such as lakes, oceans and streams. He said that since distillation was a water purification process that uses a heat source to vaporize water and separate it from contaminants and other undesirable elements commonly found in the ground and water. Distillation can be used to treat uninstalled water until it reaches it’s boiling points and begins to vaporize.
According to him, water has a lower boiling point than salt and other material sediments. Holland etal (1999), throughout his history, people have experience with the use of soar power in distillation.
Moreso, solar power can be used effectively for distillation purposes at work, only with relatively small amount of liquid. He also made mention that home distillation was the best procedures that is used for household water purification.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This project work is on the construction of a distillation unit.
During the fabrication/construction unit, some problem were accounted thereby causing a hindrance towards enhancing the successful fabrication of distillation unit.
SOME OF PROBLEMS INCLUDE
1.2.1 Cost of Purchasing Material: The material used in this construction of project was much expenses as being subjected that it should be. However to ensure that the construction was properly done, we actually meet up to the demand of purchasing it.
1.2.2 The Proximity of the Market: It refers to the distance at which the materials are being purchased from the construction place. The equipment used in producing this was purchased at Kenyetta market.
1.2.3 Breakedge During Construction: Much care are being taken to ensure that there is no breakeage of act parts of the equipment.
1.3 AIMS/PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The aim was to construct a distillation cluit that will be used for purifying products or recovering. solvents or separating of valuable reactants from waste steams.
The aim was also to support decision during design phase and optimize the process variable inorder to operate a process to improve economics along with satisfaction of the environment objectives. It aids helmans the proper way to distill their unfractional water, and it’s the best method of water purification.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.4.12 SCOPE OF THE STUDY: On this work cover the construction of a suitable distillation unit.
1.5 TYPES OF DISTILLATION UNIT
1.5.1 FLASH DISILLATION
This is the method which was frequently formed or carried out as a continuous process. Where the feed is passed into the still where liquid is vaporized. Therefore the vapour remaining in contact with the liquid, where the mixture of vapour and liquid leave the still and is separated so that the vapour will be in equilibrium with the liquid. Then all the rectifications distillation is preferred to others because part of the vapour is condensed and returned as liquid to the still, while in other methods, all the vapour is either removed or is condensed as products.
1.5.2 DIFFERENTIAL DISTILLATION
This is the process by which the vapour formed by boiling the liquid is removed at once from the system. And since this vapour is rich in M.V.C than the liquid, if it follows that liquid, the remaining will move because steadily weaker in this composition with the result that the composition of the product progressively change the vapour assuring from different distillation is in equilibrium with the liquid in which it is used by changed continuously.
1.6 METHOD OF RESEARCH
Information and materials used for this research were from chemical engineering text books and other related text books in the library. There was also research from the internet/interment point out, and also the was some information’s from chemical engineering journals. The text books has more of the information’s on the construction of a simple distillation unit.
Moreso, from the internet, where a clear diagrams of some tools can be fixed together also, from the chemical engineering journals, where a clear large information’s where started on how to carry out a good constructions of a simple distillation units.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Distillation is a widely used, separation techniques in the chemical and petroleum industry and is performed in either tray or parked columns. The set up can be used in separation of izeotropic mixture using distillation method such as extractive distillation, Heterogeneous, azeotropic distillation.
This unit is used to determine the number of theoretical stages offered by the existing column using batch distillation under total reflux to perform multi-components or extractive distillation in the laboratory scale parked column. This construction can make one to be self employed in the society and give one knowledge of the study and even provide employment for other’s and it can also bust somebody economic base.