CONTROL OF CRIME AND PREVENTION IN THE SOCIETY (IMO STATE AS CASE STUDY)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Hypothesis/research questions
1.4 Purpose of the study
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Research methodology
1.8 Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Concept of the Crime
2.2 Types of Crime
2.4 Control and Prevention
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design
3.2 Population of the study
3.3 Sample and sampling techniques
3.4 Instrumentation/ Data Collection
3.5 Reliability of instrument/result technique
3.6 Administration of Instrument
3.7 Data Analysis
3.8 Limitation of the Study
4.1 presentation and analysis of data
4.2 presentation of results to the study
4.3 testing of hypothesis
4.4 discussion of findings
4.5 results of findings
The control of crime and prevention is expected to produce a counter measure to eradicate this cankerworm, virus that has gone so deeply in violation of societal norms and values. The meaning of crime its control and prevention would be drawn up in subsequent stages and chapters. Chapter one shows the high extent of crime in the society. The main chapter two stresses the review of the literature of control and prevention of crime in the society. The following chapter highlights the methodological approach in this study where in simple percentage method of data analysis would be used in this research. The presentation and analysis of data would be featured in chapter four of the study. Then the findings reveal that it is impossible to have a crime free society, based on this regards, the study requires restructuring of the society through criminalizing individuals etc and it will help to eradicate certain deviance behaviours. This campaign should go to the grass roots where the norms and values of the society would be tools.
Background of the Study
Crime is a canker worm; it is a virus that has eaten deeply into the marrows and bones of every society. Crime is from the Latin world “Crimen” meaning accusation or fault. It has become a household word in many parts in Africa and has terrible and social problems in the world. This crime has various definitions in society. Some individuals and groups equate it to be anti-social behaviour, while others argue that crime is such act as racism, sexism and imperialism that violate the basic human rights. More so, some use moral instead of legal to define what is or is not crime. There are religious people who see certain behaviours as crime according to their accessibility to crime. There are many individuals with sound minds who have defined it in different ways and perspectives accordingly. There are various attributes to crime, i.e. ELEMENTS OF CRIME (E.O.C). In this regards, there is criminal law whose duty is to interpret and prescribe various punishments accordingly to respective offences Viz (penal and Criminal Codes). Also there are many kinds of crimes that would be latter highlighted etc Further more, there are various ways of controlling crimes and preventing it as well. In this light however is called control or bond of crime. So many hands should be on deck in other to suppress it entirely in the society. In the area of prevention of crime there should not be any lackadaisical attitude to it especially in the society which include the non governmental organization (NGO) namely individuals, groups, and relevant agencies with the government as the sole agent of control and prevention. More so, (the due) course will be browsed and diagnosed according to the individuals accessibility etc. However, peer groups should be part and parcel of it while education would pilot the whole affairs; Violence also can be used to control and prevent crime especially by the government who is constitutionally an agent to combat crime. Psychologically, sociological therapies also influence the eradication and effective directional implementations for conducive atmosphere. Sociologically, a crime is a form of deviance and also a problem in the societies, Fuller and Meyers (1973) categorized it, a social problem or a condition defined by a considerable number of persons as a deviance from social norms which they cherish. Sheila Balkam (1978) confirms that the designation of behaviour as a crime which indicates the behaviour is formally defined as illegal through the codification of laws. Giddens (1994) defines crime as non -conformist conduct that breaks a law, the problems is on the inter connection between conformity and deviance. Sellin (1938) argues that crime is a violation of culture; norms which is something beyond mere violation of law per se. According to Mc Connell (2004) sociological approach to crime would enable us to understand the economics, gender, education, race, religion, family life and other social contacts that are connected to crime
1.2 The Statement of the Problem
There are so many designed facts that cause crimes. Criminologists in the likes of fuller and Myers (1973) shella balkam Giddens (1994) Dukhelm (1993) Sellin (1938) etc have all been vocal in the problems of crime. Due to the insatiable and over scale of preference whether in needs or desires have attracted so many minds to negativity. The concept of crime implies the existing norms or rules of conducts established through the societal consensus, codification of such rules in the form of criminal law. Deviation from the rules or violations of laws, constitute crime, prescription of sanctions or punishment and also establishment of formal controls like police, immigration, prisons, EFCC and ICPC to perform regulatory functions etc are measures to combat crime. Crime must have the following features viz, it must be legally forbidden, such crime must have harm done to people, it must be an intentional act, a reckless action or inaction. And criminal intent must be noticed etc. It has been a general knowledge in law that a person will not be convicted unless the prosecution proves it right, there are some elements that emphasis on criminal act, actus reus, mens rea, concurrent of the two, harm, causations and punishment.
- The Criminal Act or Actus reus: The term Actus reus means guilty act, unless someone would commit an offence before he or she would be sanctioned, an act may be criminal when the person in question refuses to abide by the law; for example, child neglect, laws entails to those who do not live up to expectation in caring for their children (Schmalleger 2004) threatening as an act that can result to an arrest for such offence.
- Mens Rea, means the guilty mind, the mental state of the person in question at the time of behaviour there are other emphases on mens Rea e.g. intentional, knowing, recklessness, and negligence. All the above pointed to crime as major problem in our society and the measures to check mate it.
1.3. Hypothesis/ Research Questions
- Is crime committed because of lack of Crime Control in the State?
- The criminal justice administration system (C.JAS) and legal process do they actually control and prevent the situation of crimes?
- The non-formal security agents, are they more trained tactically than the formal security agents in combating crime in the state?
1.4. The Purpose of this Study
This word (CRIME) according to the Latin Crimen means fault or offence has been a deadly weapon in the society against government and even non governmental agencies. This study is to highlight explicitly the ways and manners which control and prevention of crime will be eradicated such are the followings viz.
- To determine the extent of government involvement in combating of crime. The sole agent of security should be up and doing in secure of peace and harmony in the state. Through some empowerment like giving out jobs opportunity to our dear teaming youths to restrain them from illicit acts.
- To mobilize support from the families in combating crime i.e. quite necessary to extend the campaign against crime to the families, peer groups, age grades, cultural groups, non governmental organizations. (NGO) philanthropists etc
- To examine the role of religious groups in combating crime. Religious groups should be advised to carry along the motion against crime in pursuance of their various religious dogma in respective areas.
1.5. Significant of the Study
The main and important vision of this study is to add pressure and put-to stop the occurrence of grime in the state though,
- To educate parents/families to know their roles as to guide their children and siblings against the disaster called crime.
- Children should be shown their word earlier to school so that they can know their don’ts and do’s in the state to avoid being entangled with crime.
- This study will be highly reserved to work with in the schools, primary, secondary, tertiary and universities because it is always good to catch them young.
- The result of the study is like a seed which you plant in a luminous soil that produces good fruits to the state/society.
- It is a laid down forces or aims which the government must adopt to drastically reduce the menace of crime in the state.
- In this regards the schools and the academic institutions should engage it properly through involvement in the school curriculum. This also should include in the guidance and counseling roles in order to imbibe this culture into the society.
- The government as an institution should delegate all these to the populace so that the society would not be full of imminent activities of criminals. Government should X-ray this and put it on wheel.
1.6. Scope of the Study
The purpose of this study is on crime control and prevention, crime is a disaster to the national development. Although crime control and its prevention can be carved out in various ways and means, it remains a national issue; this study is limited to Imo State in Nigeria because of difficulties to cover all the nooks and crannies of the country (therefore Imo State is used as a case study.
1.7. Research Methodology
The methodological approach based on survey research method, as the primary source of data would be consulted. Meanwhile the already laid down rules for the methodology is exactly aimed in chapter there (3) of this study which is necessary to mention accordingly.
1.8. Definition of Terms
- Crime: This is an act by any individual(s) against the government of any state that attracts sanctions for example, it is a deviance of non-conformity to the ethics, norms and values of society or government. There are two (2) tools that control crime, criminal code and penal code.
It prescribes the appropriate punishment to the offenders.
- Crime Control: It means that the society must strictly checkmate as well as reducing crime through every body’s effort in fighting against it. It means the act of monitoring and foiling of criminal activities.
- Criminal: This is the person in question whose action is always violating the laws of a given state. Again he is not just an accused person rather someone that is found guilty of an offence by a competent court of law any where.