Computer Science

Design and Construction of a Headlamp Operated Gate Opening System

Design and Construction of a Headlamp Operated Gate Opening System

ABSTRACT

This project work deals with the design and implementation of a headlamp-operated gate opening system capable of operating a gate/door using the particular headlamp only. This system tends to climate the thresh associated with manual, opening and closing of gates and boosts the security of the entity this electric system is realized in two functional units the transmitter and the receiver. The transmitter is realized using a timed radio frequency transmitter module alongside a laser, diode (the headlamp) the receiver is configured using a tuned, radio frequency receiver module which is used to power an optical light sensor circuit. The output of the sensor is conditioned by Quad -2- input Schmitt triggers NAND gate 7413132 which generates a control logic that is used to bias an NPN bipolar junction transistor. This driver energized an electromagnetic relay that switches/actuates, the prime-mover that pulls the door lover (once the transmitter button is pressed, it transmits an RF signal to the receiver installed at the gate and switches on the laser diode that functions as the light source. At the receiving end, the output signal of the TRF receiver supplies power to the optical light detector circuit that energies the relay on receiving visible light from the transmitter. The gate/door opens, and closes on its own even if the light goes off this system, is robust and rugged and will sell like a German burger if appropriately commercialized.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page — — — — —- — — — — i

Approval page — — — — —- — — — ii

Dedication — — — — —- — — — iii

Acknowledgement — — — — — — — — iv

Abstract — — — — — — — — — v

Table of contents — — — — — — — vi

Chapter one

1.1.1. Background of the study — — — — — — 1

1.1.2. Problem statement — — — — — — — 2

1.1.3. Aims and objectives — — — — — — 3

1.1.4. Significant of the project — — — — — — 4

1.1.5. Scopes of the study — — — — — — — 5

1.1.6. Project report organization — — — — — — 5

Chapter two

2.1 Literature review — — — — — — — 7

2.1.1. Review and the Analysis of the existing system — — — —

2.1.2 Historical development of the project — — — — 9

2.1.2 Areas of application of the project — — — — 11

2.1.3 Areas of applications of the project – – – – – – – – – – 18

2.1.4 Tuned radio frequency (TRF) transmitter and receiver – – – – – – – 18

2.2 System component description — — — — — 20

2.3 Resistor — — — — — — — — 21

2.4 Different symbols of resistors — — — — — — 24

2.5 Determination of the value of a resistor — — – – — – – – 5

2.6 Capacitors — — — — — — — — —

2.7 Transformers — — — — — — — — 30

2.8 Diode — — — — — — — — — 31

2.9 Types of diode — — — — — — — — 32

2.10 IC linear voltage regulator — — — — — — 33

2.11 Transistor static switch and electromagnetic relay — — 37

2.12 The optical light sensor using LDR — — — — 41

2.13 Design considerations — — — — — — 44

2.14 Applications — — — — — — — — 45

2.15 Servomotor — — — — — — — — 47

2.16 Device without feedback — — — — — — 48

Chapter three

3.1 Description of the system building blocks 49

3.2 Block diagram development into working circuit 50

3.3 System design specifications 52

3.4 The principle of operation of the system 53

Chapter four

Implementation, testing, and result 57

4.1 Implementation 57

4.2 Testing 58

4.3 Result 59

4.4 Bill of engineering quality 60

Chapter five

5.1 Summary of achievement 62

5.2 Problems encountered and solution 63

5.3 Conclusion 64

References 65

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.1.1. Background of the Study

Security is everybody’s business all over the world. And this proves more challenging to a third-world and terrorist nation like Nigeria. Security of lives and properties can be achieved in wired or wireless mode. Owing to the incessant kidnapping incidents especially in the southeast part of Nigeria, there is utmost need to secure any entity (homes/offices/institutions/factories) against such happenstance by coming up with a better technique of security the entrance gate to any entity such that only the users can get access into it. Gate locking techniques abound but each has associated shortcomings. This menace gave way to researching the best way to customize gates (entrances) into any entity. This led me to undertake the project design and implementation of a headlamp-operated gate opening system such that only the owner’s headlamp/valid users headlamp can operate it. This will boost the security of lives and properties.

1.1.2. Problem Statement

Due to the high rate of kidnapping and armed robbery in Nigeria, the security of lives and properties is everybody’s concern. Most especially in the southeast region of the country, kidnappers break into people’s compounds and abduct them for ransom. This is due mainly because of poor/no secure entrance into the compound.

In a bid to combat this menace, a highly secured gate opening system should be developed and put in place. This quest motivated me to embark on project research on the design and implementation of a headlamp-operated gate opening system such that only the owner’s headlamp can operate the gate from a distance of nearly 50m. This system will ensure that only one user or selected users can operate the gate. A system of this nature will boost the security of the compound.

1.1.3. Aim And Objectives of the Project/Study

The aim of this project design and implement a headlamp-operated gate opening system such that only the owner’s headlamp can operate the gate.

The objectives of this project are:

i. To develop a prototype of a real-life system that can open and close a gate using photoelectric effect and radiofrequency technology

ii. To design a system that is not micro-program control.

iii. To design a system that can be powered using a regulated power supply unit (PSU) synthesized from NEPA.

iv. To design a module that can use an electromagnetic relay to actuate an AC motor.

1.1.4. Significant of the Project

This project work signified a lot in computer engineering. This project can be used/employed as a security gate in a scheduled area like INEC office clubs and gardens.

It can be used as a security gate in luxury homes.

It can be used as a security door in strong rooms.

It can be applied in security gates in military barracks and prison yards to ensure maximum security.

If properly modified, it can be used in highly sensitive areas to allow only authorized users to get access to some areas.

1.1.5. Scopes of the Study

This project work focuses on the design and construction of a headlamp-operated gate opening system such that only the owner’s car headlamp can operate the gate. It covers TRF (receiver and transmitter), optocoupler using LDR, prime mover, and other components used in the system. It



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