DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN INTRUDER DETECTOR FOR OFFICE AND HOME USE

ABSTRACT

This project deals on the design and construction of an intruder detector for home and office use. Security as one of the biggest issues in our world today and we need a system that will be able to monitor our home, offices and industries by using two sensing circuits, touch and motion sensors. These sensors will cheek for an intruder in two different positions or location and with an alarm system alerts the user about the presence of an intruder. An intruder detector for office and home use is a device that detects movement of an object like human being. Many projects review the concept of intruder detecting system, but this project deals with the full practical work of the concept to prevent unauthorized person into a restricted area in our home, Industries, etc.

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE i
CERTIFICATION PAGE ii
APPROVAL PAGE iii
DEDICATION iv
ACKNOWLEDGMENT v
ABSTRACT vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLE xi
LIST OF FIGURE xii
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY 1
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT 2
1.3 THE JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT 2
1.4 SCOPE OF PROJECT 3
1.5 CONSTRAINTS 3
1.6 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION 3
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1 ORIGIN 5
2.2 OVERVIEW 6
2.3 SENSORS 6
2.4 HISTORY OF SECURITY 7
2.5 BASIC OF AN INTRUDER SYSTEM 8
2.6 RESIDENTIAL CRIME PREVENTION 9
CHAPTER THREE
DESIGN ANALYSIS 11
3.1 DESIGN METHODOLOGY 11
3.2 PROJECT SPECIFICATION:
3.3 HARDWARE SUBSYSTEM 14
3.3.1 THE INPUT INTERFACE DESIGN 16
3.3.2 CHOOSING THE RESISTOR VALUE 17
3.3.3 ANALYSIS 18
3.4 ALARM UNIT 19
3.4.1 COMPONENTS ANALYSIS 21
3.4.2 DIODES 21
3.4.3 TYPES OF DIODES 22
3.5 LIGHT-EMITTING-DIODES OR LED’S 23
3.4.4 VOLTAGE REGULATORS
3.4.5 TRANSISTORS 30
3.4.6 LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR (LDR) 34
CHAPTER FOUR
SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION 35
4.1 CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW OF PROJECT LAYOUT 35
4.2 INSTRUCTION 35
CHAPTER FIVE
SYSTEM TESTING 38
5.1 SYSTEM TESTING AND INTEGRATION 38
5.2 TEST PLAN AND TEST DATA 39
5.2.1 COMPONENTS TEST 39
5.2.2 SYSTEM TEST 40
5.2.3 OTHER TESTS 41
5.3 EXPERIMENTED RESULT VS ACTUAL RESULT 41
CHAPTER SIX:
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 42
6.1 SUMMARY OF ACHIEVEMENT 42
6.2 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED AND SOLUTION 42
6.3 CONCLUSION 43
REFERENCES 44
LIST OF TABLE
Table 3.1: Voltage Regulators output voltages 20
Table 3.2: Resistor color cude 28
Table 5.1: Test of Transistor 40
Table 5.2: Experimented value/actual value 41
TABLE OF FIGURES
FIG 1.1: BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PROJECT REPORT 4
FIG 3.1: FIVE (5) DESIGN STEPS 13
FIG 3.2: System block diagram 15
Fig 3.3: Input Sensor Design 16
Fig 3.5: LM7805 20
Fig 3.4: Symbols of diodes 22
Fig 3.5 – connecting LED to supply 24
Fig 3.7: Resistor connected in series 26
Fig 3.8: Resistors connected in parallel 27
Fig 3.9: Resistor color code representation 28
Fig 3.10: Transistor circuit symbols 30
Fig 3.11: Current path of a Transistor 31
Fig 3.12 Model of NPN Transistor 32
Figure 3.12: Light Dependent Resistor Symbol 34

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study

Environmental, home and office security against intruders has become a thing of individual, national and international concern. The essence of this project is to provide a cost effective and more efficient security system in areas like homes, industries military etc. The application of this project will enhance effectiveness necessitating to security measures. It relevance, upgrades the conventional security system to automated system that will require little of human intervention. This project also builds a platform for further sophistication of automated security system by detailing all the measures taken in realizing this system. This will ensure a complete intruder proof system which will take care.
Intruder for home and office use is a design that detects the presence of an intruder in restricted areas and also informs the user by triggering an alarm. The system is based on hardware controller and other electronic design. This hardware controller uses two sensors, one for human touch sensing and the other for movement. The movement sensor uses light dependent resistor which must work in hand with a security light incident to it. With the security light, the system can receive signal when the intruder is around and translate the received signal from the sensors to useful information. In this design we have implored the use of hardware components, creativity and logics to bring about the entire project.

1.2 Aims and Objective

The aim and objective of this project is to provide a cost effective and efficient security device for home and office use, to offer its users a paramount security.

1.3 Scope

The system can sense human touch and movement then triggers an alarm when powered with a 9v battery. It is a home intruder system that stops intruders before they get in and can summon help immediately making sure the family under its protection is absolutely safe.

1.4 Justification of the project

This project makes it difficult for intruders to break into a home when there is a spotlight shining down to them. Then with the light dependent resistor that works with the spot of light, makes this project a home intruder system that keeps criminals further away from a family.

1.5 Constraint

The biggest setback experienced during the course of this project is financial difficulties in funding the design of the project Secondly, sourcing of materials and components used was not easy. Finding the motion sensor wasn’t an easy task. Some of the components I used for this project were very difficult to find like the transistor for buffer. Furthermore, I received a severe electric shock while trying to interface some circuits into my design that made me to almost give up.

1.6 Report organization

This project report was written in such a way that each chapter is related to the next as shown below
FIG 1.1:

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PROJECT REPORT

The organization of the project report is well detailed and vast in its coverage. It covers all the activities encountered during the research work. The first chapter is the introductory chapter, which covers the background, project objectives, project justification, scope of the project, constraints and block diagram overview of the states. Chapter two presents the literature reviews. Chapter three covers the system analysis and design in details Chapter four presents the system implementation which entails the component layout, the wiring schedule, the wiring diagram and also the complete schematic diagram. Chapter five covers the testing and integration of the project design. Chapter six is the summary and conclusion which includes the summary of achievements, problems encountered during project design, recommendation and suggestion for further improvement.