DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STUDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0 INTRODUCTION

An information system (IS) is any combination of information technology and people’s activities that support operations, management and decision making. In a very broad sense, the term information system is frequently used to refer to the interaction between people, processes, data and technology. In this sense, the term is used to refer not only to the information and communication technology (ICT) that an organization uses, but also to the way in which people interact with this technology in support of business processes. (Coy, 2004).

Silver et al. (1995) opined that there are two views on (IS) and IS-centered view that includes software, hardware, data, people, and procedures. A second managerial view includes people, business processes and Information Systems. There are various types of information systems, for example: transaction processing systems, office systems, decision support systems, knowledge management systems, database management systems, and office information systems. Critical to most information systems are information technologies, which are typically designed to enable humans to perform tasks for which the human brain is not well suited, such as: handling large amounts of information, performing complex calculations, and controlling many simultaneous processes.

In an institution for instance, there is need to record information pertaining to members of the institution especially the students so that it will be easy to retrieve needed information instantly without stress. A student information system is a software system that enables the data of students to be recorded such that it will be easy to obtain needed information pertaining to any particular student or group of students. The system can also be viewed as a database system that enables capturing of large amounts of students record to facilitate manipulation by the administrator in charge. For example, every student has a unique registration number which stands as the primary key. In an information system it will be very easy to obtain the record of any student just by querying the database based on the primary key or registration ID of the student.

Management of institutions and organizations are in need of instant information so as to enable them speed up business operations considering the limited resource of time. For most businesses, there are a variety of requirements for information. Senior managers need information to help with their business planning. Middle management needs more detailed information to help them monitor and control business activities. Employees with operational roles need information to help them carry out their duties.

1.1 Statement of Problem

Many institutions do not have computerized student information system that facilitates the capturing, storage and retrieval of relevant information pertaining to its students. The traditional flat file organization is still in use and it is inefficient as it takes time to locate any needed file. The problem is worse if the information needed was recorded years back. Also, it is difficult for management to get needed information instantly thereby delaying the decision making process that is based on the information needed. They have failed to see the benefits of utilizing the computer system despite its advantages. It is in view of these challenges that this research work is carried out to design and implement a student information system.

1.2 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to design and implement a student information system that will facilitate the recording, storage and retrieval of student information such that it is also easy to manage student information.

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

The following are the objectives of the study:

To design and implement a student information system
To understand the concept of information systems
To present the types of information system
To present Architecture of a student information system
To showcase the advantages of information systems
To present the limitations of information systems

1.4 Scope of the study

This study covers the design and implementation of student information system using …………………………………….. as a case study.

1.5 Significance of the study

The significance of the study is that it will provide an effective means to capture, store and retrieve student information. Management can be presented with instant reports needed pertaining to any student or group of students. The study will also serve as a good reference material for other researchers that need information pertaining to the subject.

1.6 Definition of Terms

Information – Definite knowledge acquired or supplied about something or somebody, also the meaningful material derived from computer data by organizing it and interpreting it in a specific way

System – A combination of related parts working together to achieve a particular goal.

Management – the organizing and controlling of the affairs of a business or sector of business.

Query – A request for information

Database – A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it can be automatically retrieved or manipulated.

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