DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION OF WELL WATER IN ABAKPA AREA OF ENUGU METROPOLIS

ABSTRACT

The aims of this research work were; to determine possible heavy metal contaminant of well water in Abakpa area of Enugu metropolis and to inform the community and others of their health effect.

Well water was collected after an extended stagnation (overnight) from a closed well behind kerosene bus- stop at Abakpa. The sampling was limited by the high cost of the reagent needed for the laboratory test use of the analytical instrument and apparatus. Besides, the number of wells in Abakpa were not two nor three but very many. Thus to prove heavy metal contamination of well water in Abakpa a well was chosen. This well’s water was chosen because looking at its color and odour one may infer the water was clean good for drinking. Distilled water was also used in the experimental aspect of some the metals (Ni and Co).

The analytical instrument that was used is portable datalogging spectrophotometer. The reagents were copper ver 1 reagent powder pillow, citric acid powder pillow, ferrous iron powder pillow sodium periodate powder pillow, potassium 1 reagent powder pillow, buffer powder pillow – yellow, phthalates phosphate reagent powder pillow and bromophenol blue indicator. Other materials were 10 Nu sample cell, 25 ml sample cell dropper, 1 ml pipette, flat bottom conical flask and funnel. The following heavy metal contaminants; copper, manganese, iron, chromium, nickel, barium, and cobalt were tested for and were found present at trace level; 0.01, 1.3, 0.22, 0.01,0.59, 34, and 0.03 mg/L respectively.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND INFORMATION

This study is on the determination of heavy metal contamination of well water in Abakpa, Enugu metropolis. Water to a chemist is a chemical compound with two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen in each of its molecules. It has multi – uses and indispensable for continuous existence of plants and animals. One of its artificial sources is well water from well if impure or contaminated is not safe for its beneficiaries whether used directly or indirectly.

Heavy metal is one of its pollutants. They cannot be detected by sight, taste or smell but by chemical analysis using suitable analytical techniques. When water is not safe to its beneficiaries it means there are adverse effects due to the presence of contaminants. Through the determination of the contaminants the problem haly sowed. Determination in this context means finding out or calculating the heavy metal contaminants (qualitatively and quantitatively). Preventive measures can be taken and the pharmacists and doctors can offer lasting solution after knowing the source of the problem.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Heavy metal contamination in very harmful. There are adverse effect associated with it. There effects may be health environmental or irrigational depending on the use of contaminated water. In consequence of the above fact, the following are subject of concern; how can heavy metal contaminant of well water be determined? What are the health effects of heavy metal contaminated of well water in Abakpa area of Enugu Metropolis?

  • AIMS OF THE STUDY

The aims of this study are to determine possible heavy metal contaminants of well water in Abakpa, Enugu metropolis and to inform the community and other of their health effects.

  • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

A       Is well water Abakpa (Enugu) contaminated with heavy metal?

B       what are heavy metal contaminates and when they aid to be harmful?

C       how can heavy metal contamination in water be determined?

  • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study in a timely and interesting one in this era; when there are poliferation of pure water firm and source of water to meet the demand of the people. Some of the pure water factorice do not have laboratory or scientific to check for safety of water for man use. Through this study the right source to meet in made known.

In addition , the appearance that will call for examining (well) water for heavy metal contaminants are itemized. The simplest and less expensive method that will give a specific and accurate result in determining heavy metal contaminant is made know to a chemist. Specification from authorized health organization are made available. Their health effects are not left out. The degree of their effects on man and other materials show the need for control and prevention. Prevention some people say is better than cure. The case where drug (s) in needed the right person to meet is made known. No doubt the study would be of colossal benefit it to the people of Abakpa Enugu metropolis and other people.

1.6     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study was limited by the following factor;

A       Money – this is very essential for any study to be a success. Due to insufficient money and the cost of the reagent, this study was limited.

B       Faulty and unavailable analytical instrument- done analytical instruments were not available they were faulty.

C       Time- due to shortness of time the most important information was considered.

D       reagents and apparatus- some of the needed reagents and apparatus were not available. 

1.7     JUSTIFICATION

The experiment aspect of this study was carried out in analytical laboratory belonging to Enugu state environmental protection agency (ENSEPA). The laboratory is reliable and equipped.