DETERMINATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA
In a study to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices along with epidemiological factors of bovine tuberculosis from pastoralists and the communities around them in Katsina State, two Local Government Areas (LGAs) were randomly selected without replacement from each of the three Senatorial districts of the State. Furthermore, two wards from each of the selected LGAs were further randomly selected without replacement. Ten percent of the total estimated population of pastoralists in the State was used in the study. A closed-ended questionnaire was designed to capture the knowledge, attitude and practices of the respondents along with the epidemiological factors of the disease. A total of 592 respondents participated in the study with one hundred each from five of the LGAs and 92 from the sixth LGA. From the study 510 (86.0%) respondents indicated knowing 5 animal diseases each while 49 (8.27%) and 24 (4.05%)of them knew 10 and 15 animals diseases respectively. Among the diseases they knew were CBPP (43.70%), fasciolosis (21.90%), helminthosis (19.90%), black leg (8.70%) and FMD (3.80%). They attributed their sources of knowledge of these diseases to veterinarians (28.50%), human hospitals (6.70%), friends (4.56%), fellow herdsmen (3.37%) and the media (31.25%). Furthermore, 76.01% of the respondents were aware of bovine Tb and ascribed signs of the disease in both cattle and humans as coughing (61.48%), weight loss (20.60%), and death (15.20%). They demonstrated knowledge of the means of transmission of the disease in animals as ingestion (16.80%), drinking contaminated water (36.60%) and closeness (35.90%) among infected and susceptible animals and humans while means of transmission of the disease in humans to be consumption of contaminated meat (33.10%), drinking contaminated milk or milk products (36.48%) and closeness between infected and susceptible individuals (30.40%). With regard to their attitude to tuberculosis, 87.80% of the respondents indicated eating roasted meat (‗Suya‘) daily while others indicated drinking fermented milk (81.41%) and fresh milk from the udder (66.04%) of their cattle and that 64.80% of them considered that there was no adverse effect in taking milk directly from the udder of their animals. Among the respondents, 19.42% reported eating while milking their cattle as they (10.97%) regarded that there was no adverse effect in doing so. With regard to control of diseases in both animals and humans, they reported vaccinating their children against killer diseases like tuberculosis using BCG (44.08%), and they reported to the veterinary clinics (54.39%) when their animals were sick. With respect to their practices, 54.50% of the respondents reported keeping their animals under extensive management system while 8.70% and 36.60% of them reported keeping their animals under intensive and semi-intensive management systems respectively. Some of the respondents (19.50%) grazed their animals within 1km from their ‗Ruga‘ while 47.29% and 33.10% reported grazing their animals 2km and 3km away from their ‗Ruga‘ respectively. Some (40.37%) of the respondents reported that the distance between their ‗Buka‘ and the animals‘ kraals were 1 metre away from the kraal while others (30.40% and 14.80%) said their ‗Bukas‘ were 5metres and 10 metres away from the cattle kraals respectively.With respect to epidemiological factors to exposure to bTB, 72.97% of the respondents reported mixing their cattle with others from other herds daily and that 54.39% of the pastoralists reported all suspected diseases including bTB to veterinary clinics while 29.56% were sending such animals to markets for sale. From the study it was concluded that no less than 76.01% of the respondents were aware of tuberculosis in both animals and humans and that their attitude, practices along with the presence of epidemiological factors are capable of spreading tuberculosis within their areas and beyond.
1.1 Background of the Study
The pastoralists, also known as Fulani herdsmen, are people who live mostly in remote areas and whose lives are primarily dependent on livestock (Saidu et al., 1991). Their occupation is mostly in tendering their livestock which comprise mostly cattle, sheep, and goats and to a certain extent poultry (Saidu et al., 1991; Kaltungo, 2013; Buhari, 2014). They may also have horses and/or donkeys which they use for haulage of their goods and children during migration (Saidu et al., 1991). They also participate in crop farming, providing the much needed manure for the crop farms while at the same time using their bulls to till the land (Saidu et al., 1991).
Diseases have been variously reported to affect efficient livestock development in many African countries to the effect that, in many situations, the European Union and the United States of America and other donors had to come to the aid of these countries (PARC, 1999). Some of these diseases include rinderpest, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and foot and mouth disease (FMD). Diseases of public health importance like tuberculosis and brucellosis have also been reported to be widely spread among the national cattle herd and other animals in the Nigerian livestock industry (Abubakar, 2007; Kaltungo, 2013; Buhari, 2014; Baba, 2016). These diseases have been shown to occur in humans. For example, the organism (Brucella abortus) has been shown to cause orchitis in man. Similarly tuberculosis, due to Mycobacterium bovis, a primarily cattle disease agent, has been demonstrated in pastoralists and other community members in Bauchi and Gombe states recently (Ibrahim, 2016). This may not be unconnected with the cultural habits of most rural communities and even among some urban dwellers who take millet paste with unpasteurized milk in the form of ‗Nono (Ibrahim, 2016).
It is for these and other reasons that this study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices of pastoralists and communities where these pastoralists reside with regard to the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Katsina State.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Livestock production in Nigeria is largely in the hands of pastoralists who own greater than 80% of the national cattle herd (Saidu, et al., 1991). These pastoralists are in a habit of moving with their livestock from one area to another, especially during the dry season as they go out searching for crop residues for their livestock. It is also during this period that water for them and their livestock is scarce and this adds to the reason for their migration. In the process, many herds meet and this is capable of spreading diseases, especially communicable ones like tuberculosis. The level of education by these pastoralists has been shown to be low and therefore they are not aware of how diseases are necessarily transmitted or spread among animals (Saidu et al., 1991; Kaltungo, 2013;Buhari, 2014). The cultural activities of the pastoralists with regard to their eating and drinking habits has further added to the possibility for acquisition of infection and even the spread of such diseases like brucellosis and even tuberculosis, should the animals under their care be infected (Kaltungo et al,, 2013). Thus, today the prevalence of both tuberculosis and brucellosis seem to be on the increase (Alhaji, 1976; Abubakar, 2007; Bertu et al., 2010; Kaltungo, 2013).
Hitherto, Nigerian Governments depended greatly on oil for executing most of their activities in running governance. The present national administration is diverting its interest in making agriculture to contribute significantly to the Nigerian economy. Therefore, the livestock sector of agriculture should be seen to make greater impact in supporting the economy. This cannot be possible with increasing occurrence of livestock diseases and even zoonotic ones. Thus, determining the status of bovine tuberculosis in Katsina State will go a long way in making cattle to meaningfully contribute economically to the state and even national economy by way of increased supply of livestock products and productivity.
Nigeria is one of the countries in Africa with the highest livestock populations (Jahnke et al., 1986). However, other countries like Botswana and Kenya are able to tap from their livestock population more than Nigeria as they have substantially controlled livestock diseases (Jahnke et al., 1986). The potentials for increased and improved livestock production in Nigeria were there as there were many grazing reserves and stock routes that could facilitate livestock development(Saidu and Alhaji, 1981). There are also many extension delivery outlets that can educate the livestock keepers (pastoralists) to improve their production system (Dafwang, et al., 1987; Mijindadi and Saidu; 1990). However, diseases, especially zoonotic ones, are capable of not only reducing productivity of the national cattle herd but also adversely affecting the human population that will be expected to drive the economy of the nation around. This is at a time when many Nigerians have ventured into yoghurt production earning little income while Nigerians are able to receive dairy products as a means of improving the per caput animal protein intake, especially for the young and old members of the citizenry. The colonial administration along with the Regional Governments tried to introduce livestock development programmes like Livestock Investigation and Breeding Centres (LIBC) and dairy farms with the sole aim of boosting livestock production. This has become a thing of the past as the livestock owners are left more to themselves. There is, therefore, the urgent need to look into the diseases that, not only affect livestock, but also influence public health and productivity of both animals and man. Thus, this study is set out to determine the epidemiological factors that will lead to the spread of tuberculosis in selected Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Katsina State.
1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study was to determine the epidemiological factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in selected Local Government Areas of Katsina State, Nigeria
1. To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pastoralists and rural communities in Katsina State on tuberculosis.
2. To determine the epidemiological factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in selected Local Government Areas of Katsina State.
3. To determine the risk factors of bovine tuberculosis with regard to pastoralists‘ and communities‘ attitudes and practices in selected Local Government Areas of Katsina State.
1.4.3 Research Questions
1. What are the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pastoralists and rural communities with regard to bovine tuberculosis in Katsina State?
2. What are the epidemiological factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in selected Local Government Areas of Katsina State?
3. What are the risk factors of bovine tuberculosis with regard to pastoralists‘ and communities‘ attitudes and practices in selected Local Government Areas of Katsina State?