THE DEVELOPMENT OF WOMEN EDUCATION IN ZARIA CITY 1976-2006
Given the fact that women education serve as a catalyst in achieving development, therefore this study titled ‘the development of women education in Zaria city 1976-2006 examined the history and the development of women in Zaria city. The society of Zaria city during pre-colonial period had developed two forms of educational systems, Islamic education and traditional education. In a traditional educational system, elderly members of the society impart knowledge and skills to the younger members of the society both at home and outside the home while Islamic education was conducted in a formal way where classes were held. Prior to the advent of British colonial rule and western education in Zaria, most parents denied their women the right to education due to socio-cultural belief and economic poverty. The year 1976 saw massive development of women education in Zaria city due to encouraging parent allowing their children to go to school free for all women, building of schools and the establishment of women association ‘Women in Politics’ in 1976 a driving factor to the development of women education in Zaria city. Therefore the development of women education brought somanyimpac to the society which include the rise of women activist like Haj Gambo Sawaba, Hajiya Rakiya Musa. Who were the founders of women in politics organisation. It also point out the participation of women in political activities like Hajiya Rakiya Musa ones a commissioner Hajia Safiya Tukur was also ones a commissioner.
Background of the study
Education in its broad perspective is life long process which aims at equipping individuals effectively with acceptable skills, knowledge, beliefs, facts and competences that will enable him to cope favourably with the challenges of the society. It comprises all efforts, conscious or direct, incidental or indirect made by a given society to accomplish certain objectives that are considered desirable in terms of individuals needs as well as the needs of the society were the program is based. The most important role of education is that it serves as a veritable instruments to counter the constraints posed by a dynamic society where man lives.[i]
This chapter gives a general background to this discourse.it introduces the reader to what the researcher has done in the course of this research. Thus the chapter provides the aim and objectives of the study and as well as the methodology the researcher has used in carrying out this research work. It also contributes to knowledge generally. The chapter also examine the geography of Zaria city and its actual foundation as both a political and commercial capital as well as an emirate.
Zaria city is situated in Zaria LGarea of Kaduna state. It is also one of the emirates of the Sokoto caliphate. The earliest inhabitants of the city were the hausa.Today the area is populated with different ethnic groups i.e. nupe, Yoruba who mostly came to the city for the seek of knowledge during the 19th century jihad and some were there for trade. The area is blessed with resources like fertile land and other natural resources which provide opportunities for human habitation. Majority of the people in the area were farmers and the staple crops grown include yam, guinea corn, maize, beans rice etc. they practice subsistence farming using local farm imputes. Other economic activities practice in the area included domestication of animals, local industries (crafts), and engagement in small scale enterprise.[ii]This research attempt to examine the development of women education in Zaria city 1976-2006. For a much understanding of this research work there will be need to first examine the socio-political and economic organisation of the area and then go further to examine the nature of indigenous education in Zaria city before the advent of colonial rule. The research also examines the colonial rule and the advent of western education, as well as the development of women education shall also be examined. The research goes forward to assess the development of women education in Zaria city, this will be backed up by raising issues like early marriage, poverty, insurgency etc. and how those problems were overcome in Zaria city prior to the women educational development. At last the research comes to examine the relative contributions of women to economic, political and social development in Zaria city. The reason that led to the witness and growth of women embarked in education during the period of study shall also be examined. The research is divided into five chapters. Chapter one gives the general background of the study. Chapter two deals with the study area and socio-political formation. Chapter three focuses on women education before colonial rule and the advent of western education. Chapter four analyses the impact of women education on Zaria City. And the last chapter deals with the summary, conclusion and recommendation.