THE EFFECT OF AGGRESSION AND VIOLENCE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE (A CASE STUDY OF OGBE SEC. SCHOOL EFFURUN DELTA STATE)
This paper presents the findings on bullying behaviour among secondary school students in Ogbe Secondary School. The purpose of this study was to explore the perception of teachers and students about bullying behaviour among secondary school in Ogbe. More specifically, the study explore the element of bullying, characteristics of bullying, factors and consequences of bullying behaviour among secondary school students as perceived by both teachers and students. Both qualitative and quantitative approach was used through out the study. In which a cross sectional survey design was adopted. The study gathered 160 informant, where 100 teachers who were obtained through random sampling participated in the study. Purposive sampling was used to identify discipline teachers and students who participated in the interview. It was found that physical aggression was perceived to be the dominant element of aggression. Boys were highly preferred to be bullies than girls. Also, watching violent films was the dominant factor for aggression and poor academic performance was mostly preferred as the impact of bullying.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Aggression among students of secondary school occur world wide, among all problems of secondary school, none is as debilitating as aggression because of its effect on the bully and the victim as well. Aggression is a pattern of behaviour in which one individual is chosen at the target of repeated aggression of one or others; the target person (the victim) generally has less power than those who engage in aggression (bullies). Baron and Bryne, (2005). Social psychologist in their definition says that aggression is a psychological violence; a sustain aggression that strips a person of control and dignity Paszkiewicz (2010). Based o n this definition, the researcher will accentuate that aggression is using power to hurt or humiliate other person. Aggression is rampart in our secondary school and it has a lot of effects on the students. It’s difficult to discover a secondary school today was aggression does not exist. According to the journal of the American Association; out of more 15,000 public school student surveyed in the United States, nearly 30% reported occasional to frequent involvement in aggression. Whether as a bully, or target or both. In the United Kingdom, the British School Health Education unit found that a quarter of 10 – 11 years old survey were bullied either everyday of “often”, another report says that 15% of Australian children admit to have being bullied weekly, the case with Nigerian school may not be different if appropriate statistic is taken. These figures can be higher in percentage depending on how one defines the problem and view its prevalence. If we will accept nicknaming children and excluding them from games as bullying, then these figures we see would get up to 100%. The characteristics of aggression have two basic parts. Firstly, researcher on aggression indicate that relatively few children are purely victims or pure bullies, rather a long number play both role, they bully some students, and are bullied in return by others (Vermande, Oart, GoudenardRispens 2000). Secondly, aggression seems to be common all around the globe. Baron and Bryne (2005) asserted that, on this topic bullying has been truly international in scope and has been examined the occurrence of bullying in many cultures. Aggression is played out with alarming frequency now a days and bullies and their victims may be of either gender. Consequently, concerns of parents, policy makers, educators and the public have escalated in awareness that bullying has serious damaging effect for bullying victims, foods and communities. Countries around the world with the rise in the reported incidents of violence and the links that have been established between violence and aggression. In the western world, much attention has been devoted in stemming the act of aggression but in Nigeria, this act goes on in many schools unnoticed. (Bonke, 2009). Aggression has been defined variously by researchers. According to Lunmdtti cited in Bonke 2009. Aggression occurs when a person will fully and repeatedly exercise power over another with hostile or malicious intent. A wide range of physical or verbal behaviour of an aggressive or anti-social nature are encompassed by the term bullying. This involves insulting, teasing, a busing verbally and physically, threatening, humiliating, harassing and mobbing. Pepler and Craig (2000), cited in Bonke (2009) observed that bullying is the most common form of violence, it is what drives the culture of violence, permitting the most power to dominate the less powerful. Nickel (2005) and Bonke (2009) also defined bullying as the “international”, unprovoked abuse of power by one or more children to inflict pain or cause distress to another child unrepeated or occasion, aggression is a growing and significant problem in many schools around the world. It is the experience among children of being a target of aggressive behaviour of other children who are not siblings and not necessarily age mates. Generally students who get bullied can be regarded as being passive or being submissive victims. They are usually quiet, careful, sensitive, and they start crying easily. They are unsure of themselves and have poor self confidence of negative self-image (Oghiagbephan, 2010). A broad definition of aggression as opined by (Olweus, 1993; Coloroso, 2002 and Bonke, 2009) is when a student is repeatedly exposed to negative action on the part of one or more other students. This physical action can take the forms of physical contact, verbal abuse or making faces and rude gestures, spreading rumours and excluding the victim from a group are also common forms of bullying. This negative actions are not necessarily provoked by the victims for such actions to be regarded as bullying, an imbalance in real or perceiving power most exist between the victims and the persons who victimize him or her.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
The increase in the cases of violence and aggression by teachers to students or among students in cases of fighting and bullying has resulted in the poor academic achievement of students. the incessant cases of aggression and violence has regrettably also led to lack of efficient development of secondary schools in Nigeria as students who should have performed academically are no longer given that required environment to do so. This has ultimately led to the production of half baked secondary school graduates which by extension have negatively affected the education sector of Nigeria.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is tp examine the effect of aggression and violence on academic performance among secondary school students in Nigeria.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTION
What is the effect of aggression and violence on the academic performance secondary school students in Nigeria?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: Violence and aggression among students does not affect their academic performance.
H1: Violence and aggression among students affect their academic performance.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of immense benefit to secondary schools in Nigeria as it would unveil the effect of aggression and violence on students’ academic performance In Nigerian secondary schools. The study would also be of importance to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing a further study on the subject matter.
1.7. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is on the effect of aggression and violence on academic performance of secondary schools students in Effurun Delta state.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
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