THE EFFECT OF CULTISM ON STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA
(A CASE STUDY OF THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION EKIADOLOR, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE)
The research work focused on the effects of cultism on students’ academic performance a case study of college of education, Ekiadolor-Benin. The research work consists of five chapters. The chapter entitled chapter one an introduction and scope of study, chapter two covers the review of literature, which covers the various effects of cultism on students’ performance. Chapter three examines research methodology covering sampling procedures and method of data analysis. Chapter four, this cover the presentation of data analysis, chapter five hold on the summary, conclusion, questionnaires structured question asked during the oral interview and recommendations consequently, the research work was completed with references slighted during the research work.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the study
Statement of the problems
Significant of the study
Limitations of the study
Scope of the study/delimitations
Purpose of the study
Definitions of terms
Historical background of cultism
Categories of secrete cults
The initiation ceremonies
The different stages of initiation
The activities of secrete cults
Materials for initiations
Causes of inter-cult violence in Nigeria tertiary institution
Solutions to the problems of cultism
Population of the study
Sample and sampling techniques
Validity of instruments
Reliability of instrument
Administration of the instrument
Analysis of data
Discussion of data
Suggestions for further findings
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to oxford dictionary of current English the word ‘cult” means a system of religious worship especially one that is exposed in rituals. From this definition, cults have now popularly known as “confraternity” has assumed a monstrous feature in our various institutions of learning. This is because international figures have been known to be members of the pirate confraternity in their college or institutions. Furthermore, Kolawole et al (2000) said that when there was a violent crash between the eye confraternity and the buccaneers at the university of Ibadan in 1989, some notable professors and doctors at the institutions were found to be patrons and bankers of these cults. The implications are that these professors and doctors were members of these cults in their own college days.
It is now common in our campuses that factors of naval cults violence clash ever in broad day knight and mats themselves with dangerous weapons such as guns and daggers. The recent occurrence are the university of Ife, Benin, Ekpoma, Ibadan, college of Education Ekiadolor against the social ill calling to its total eradication. Secrete cults societies could be traced down to the Egyptians. The magicians in their request for more power used some cultic devices they formed a school of taught which was mostly based on intellectual objectives, which is mainly to enhance their cultic prowess. Initiations are conducted for people that want to belong to a particular set of masquerade are observed thoroughly by its members. One initiated, the secrete concerning the masquerade are observed thoroughly by its members. In the late 40’s the higher institutions in Nigeria were not associated with secrete societies. The first higher school secrete cult in Nigeria came into existence in 1952 when a group of seven (7) students lead by Wole Soyinka Olumuyiwa, Awe, Raph, Opora, Dir Aif-Imokhunede, Junji Tubi and Oly Agunoloye formed the sea dogs confraternity (AKA Pirates) in the university of Ibadan. There was nothing secreted then when it was newly introduced. The main reason of forming the cult was to fight colonialism ensuring the dignity of man and ride the Nigeria society of elitism and tribalism. Its members engage in humanitarian activities such as donations of blood to hospitals to save lives and assist the helpless in the society also, an attempt to fight any attempted oppress students by any lecturers or the school management trying to impose oppressive policies on the students, “everything we did then was healthy, firm, harmless and above board”. Recall Muyiwa Awe, one of the founding fathers their confraternity were legitimate and officially recognized by the school authority and the government of the time. Cultism could simply be described as a kind of gang behaviour that is contrary to the acceptable norms and value of the large society and its characters by oath taking, secrecy and violence. According to Hornsby (2001) it is also system of religious worship, a devotion to a person or practice and ritual especially of a single diet.
However, that is where the similarities ends as there is indeed a distinction between the two for instance “secrete society” is defined in section 31% of the constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria 1999 as including any secrete association group or body of persons (whether registered or not).
a. That uses secrete signs, oaths, rites or symbols and which is formed to promote on course the purpose or part of the purpose of which is to foster the interest of its members and to aid one another under any circumstances without due regard to merit fair play or justice to the detriment of the legitimate interest of those who are not members.
b. The members are shown to observe oaths of secrecy or the activities of which are not known to the public at large, the names of whose members are kept secret and whose meeting and other activities are held in secrete. Although there is no definition in the constitution. The definition given to it in the secret cult and similar activities (prohibition) law 2004 recently passed in the River State House of Assembly in 18 instructive as it clearly shown the popularity in Nigeria of the non academic every day usage of the phrase. That law defined secrete cult as follows ‘it means an organisation, association, group of body or person (whether or not listed) whose membership meeting and others activities are kept secrete and which promote causes or engage in acts of violence or harm.
From the definition above, definition above, it can be seen that the essential difference between the two notions is the dominant element of violence in the definition of secrete cult, which element is not necessarily present in that of the secrete society.
THE STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The fundamental problems of cultism are the uncertain and unsafe atmosphere in our campuses. Ewa to the activities of members, of secret cult, the manner of operation is both sinister inn our campuses in recent times of cultism whose phenomena seen to be going more and prominence on our campuses. This researcher intend to make an in-depth study into the factors which created the on hearty climate that encourage the growth and spread of cultism in our institution of learning with a view to proffer solution to the problems.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of cultism on student’s emotions. A case study if the College of Education Ekiadolor-Benin with the view to educate the public about magnitude of the problems. It will also examine the factors that promote the growth of cultism in our institutions of higher learning. Furthermore, it will also help to know its sanctions placed on students by the school outward contribution to the growth of cultism in our institution of higher learning. Lastly, it will examine how cultism affects the intellectual ability of the students.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will provide explanatory terms. The factors, which creates the hearty and implementers of policies with the factors that influence cultism and school and the effect on the emotion of students. Then when known will enable them to combat squarely and help eradicate the problems that have become a cankerworm in our institutions of higher learning. It is important to state clearly that this project work will also highlight some of the causes of cultism, factors that promote the growth of cultism, and conclusively, provide solution on how the problems of cultism can be solved in our higher institutions of learning.
1. Does lack of parental care promote the growth of cultism in our contemporary schools?
2. Does cultism affect the emotion of students?
3. Does sanction from school contributes to the growth of cultism in school?
4. Does cultism affect the intellectual ability of the students in school?
SCOPE OF STUDY
This study will involve the total scope of study of the College of Education Ekiadolor students in Benin City.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Cult: A system of religious worship especially one that is expressed in rituals.
Cultism: It is the state/phenomenon where a person is bound together with common belief.
Masquerade: An action, manner that appears to be genuine or sincere but is not.
Initiation: the act of initiating or the process of being initiated into a group or an activity.
Assassination: to murder an important person especially for political reasons.
Quest: The act of seeking or a long search or to find.
Callousness: Not caring about other people’s feelings or suffering.
Catastrophe: A sudden disaster that causes many people to suffer