THE EFFECT OF OIL SPILLAGE ON SOIL PROPERTIES AND PLANT PERFORMANCE IN WARRI AREA, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The effect of oil spillage and other industrial wastes on our environment have been a major concern in the Warri area. This write up provides a detailed study of oil spillage. It also contain an overview of soil composition and fertility in the Warri area.

Finally this project highlighted the consequences of oil spillage on soil and crop performance in the Warri area. The effectiveness of various results obtained depends on the nature of oil, relative properties of the soil and soil environment. Also this work gives some possible control measures to check spillage.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgement v
Abstract vii
Table of contents viii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 introduction 1
1.1 The nature and consequences of environmental pollution 2
1.2 aim and objectives 3
1.3 statement of problem 4
1.4 limitation of study 4
1.5 justification of study 5
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 literature review 6
2.1 soil and its properties 6
2.2 soil survey and soil particle size distribution in warri 8
2.3 oil spillage 10
2.4 causes of oil spillage 11
2.4.1 Mechanical failure 12
2.4.2 Operational discharges 12
2.4.3 Sabotage 12
2.4.4 Natural hazards 12
2.4.5 Corrosion 13
2.5 effects of oil spillage on soil properties and crop performance 13
2.6 soil solution 15
2.7 soil acidity 16
2.8 soil temperature and its effect 16
2.9 soil fertility 18
2.9.1 soil element 19
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology 21
3.1 materials 21
3.2 Methods 21
3.3 Laboratory analyses 22
3.3.1 Determination of soil ph 22
3.3.2 Determination of organic carbon 22
3.3.3 Determination of total – nitrogen 24
3.3.4 Determination of calcium 25
3.3.5 Determination of soil temperature 26
3.3.6 Determination of alkalinity 26
3.4 Study area. 27
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Experimental result 28
4.1 Discussion 29
4.1.1 Soil ph 29
4.1.2 Organic carbon 30
4.1.3 Total nitrogen 30
4.1.4 Alkalinity 30
4.1.5 Temperature 31
4.1.6 Microbial count 31
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion 32
5.1 recommendations 33
5.2 Possible control measures 33
Reference. 35

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

In the oil producing areas, oil pollution has become a problem that calls for urgent attention due to its devastating effect on the environment. Oil pollution has a detrimental effect on the ecosystem and its effect are usually very visible and sometimes very devastating.

According to Nelson, (1999) pollution is said to occur when there is a release into the environment of substances and energy in quantities which are detrimental to man and other living organisms.
The environment here comprises of the Landscape ie soil, air, bodies of water, streams and lakes. There is also evidence that due to the activities of man, there has been a release into the soil substances that affects the soil structure, crop performance and the vegetation at large.

The effect of man’s operations on terrestrial environment includes the interference with the structure of land surface, the immediate sub-surface, streams and lakes. Petroleum and its components that have been released into the environment is eventually degraded into simple compounds of their constituent elements by physico chemical or biological agencies of the soil with or without human assistance and that had become innocuous after a long period of time.

Thus, when oil spillage occurs, its effects are usually pronounced on the soil flora and fauna as well as the soil structure.

1.1 THE NATURE AND CONSEQUENCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

The nature and scope of environmental pollution which result mostly from the activities in the oil industry varies extensively. These activities include:
i. Unhealthy disposal of waste crude oil and chemical used during drilling, oil production, and processing.
ii. Indiscriminate channelling of liquid and semi-liquid waste into nearby streams, river and landscape.
iii. Oil spillage
iv. High level noise from the machinery.
The socio – economic and environmental impact of these activities result to:
i. Destruction of vegetation and other associated wide life.
ii. Damage to soil and crops by heat and the attendent loss of sources of livelihood.
iii. Pollution of air, land and water resulting in the destruction of both plant and main life and the alteration of the ecosystem.
iv. Contamination of the ground water.
v. Fire oiutbreak, explosion, and degradation of the environment.
It is worthy of note that while the oil industry in Nigeria ranks high in the ladder of environmental polluters, it is also the most actors in combating pollutions.

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The incessant oil spillage in the oil producing area of Warri and its surroundings has led to the downturn of growth of main economic plants which is as a result in the depletion of soil nutrients that are responsible for the growth of these vegetation. The result of which led to:
i. determination of the effect of oil spillage on the soil property.
ii. Ascertain the effect of oil spill on the performance of crops.
iii. And at the same time to determine possible control measure to check oil spillage.

1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The occurrence of these oil spillage mostly in the river area of Warri has led to the mass exodus of people in search of their livelihood. The large quantities of crude oil spill on the environment has led to the depletion of the soil nutrient, soil structure, death of soil micro-organism, soil pollution and natural disasters which has made the land infertile and inhabitable for the survival of the inhabitants, many of which are subsistence farmers and making the people impoverish leaving the land undeveloped.

1.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

This work is limited to oil spillage on soil properties and the performance of crops in the Warri area. A detail study of this work would have being carried out but due to the following constraints which include inability to lay hands on some vital publications, unavailability of some chemicals, reagents and materials in the department, time for research work and inaccessibility to the affected site in Warri due to the bad terrain of the road for vehicle to ply.

1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY

Much emphasis have been laid on the efficiency and effectiveness of management and control of oil spillage on soil and crop performance in the Warri area. This have greatly affected the environment of the area. The promotion of effective control is a function of effective management.
This research will enable environmentalist and companies involved in causing oil spillage to realize that effective management and control is one of their major responsibility and is necessary to promote improve crop yield, healthy environment and good soil fertility.

REFERENCES

Anderson, B. (1989): Report on oil pollution on soil of Niger Delta special, 2nd Ed, Pp 24 – 25.

Atuanya, E. I. (1987): Effect of waste Engine Oil pollution on physical and chemical properties of soil. A case study of waste oil contamination in Delta soil. Pp 155 – 160.

Barker, J. M. (1990): The Effect of oil on plant and Environmental pollution 4th Edition, Macmillan Publishing Company Inc. New York Pp.22 – 224.

Dejong, E. (1980): The effect of crude oil spills on some plants, principles and perspectives. John Wiley New York, U.S.A Pp 15 – 16.

Mc Graw – Hill (1980): Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Vol. 2 McGraw Hill Pp. 857 – 858.

Mc Graw Hill, (1985): Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Vol. 2 McGraw Hill Pp. 396 – 97, 444.

Nelson, A. S. (1999): Effect of Environmental Pollution on Land and Sea. Mc Graw Hill Book Company. New York.

Ninth World petroleum Congress proceedings; (1978): Geology Vol. 2 Applied Science Publishers Ltd London P. 17.

Odu, C. T. I. (1997): Causes of Oil spillage from Oil industry. Pp. 201 – 204.

Rowell, M. J. (1977): The Effect of Crude oil spills on soils. A Review of Literature. Part , Edmonton, Canada Pp. 14, 17 – 18.

Russell’s (1988): Soil condition and plant growth in Niger Delta Region, Alan Wildo. Longman group UK Ltd Pp. 271 – 273.

S. P. D. C, (1995): Oil pollution and control. (A Journal of Shell Petroleum Development Company Nigeria Ltd, 3rd Ed Pp. 2 -3 .