Effective Management of Reward System as Catalyst for Achieving Positive Performance Attitudes at the Primary School Level
There are two ways to ensure job performance in the realms of rewards; pecuniary and no pecuniary. This project examines the effective management of reward system as catalyst for achieving positive performance attitudes at the primary school level. Survey research design was adopted and data collected through questionnaires. The impact of effective reward system on primary school level workers job Performance was analyzed using the regression analysis method. The study revealed the existence of a positive relationship between reward system and employee job performance, most especially where agreement reached with the workers’ union on salary and incentives are implemented, That Government does not include workers’ union in decision making when formulating employee reward package, that well-managed and implemented reward package will motivate an employee to perform better at work. The study recommended that reward package should be reviewed timely so as to continue to enhance the performance of workers.
Keywords: Reward, Job performance, Organisation, Government, Union
The management of employee reward is today more complex than it had hitherto been some four decades ago. This is because many unanticipated legal, social, cultural and economic constraints have surfaced in recent time (Banjoko 2006). The dynamic nature of the environment has altered the values and expectation of the workers thus putting pressure on employers to review upwards the contents of any compensation package. The economic situation of Nigeria has changed drastically in recent time such that cost of living has shut up drastically, cost of operation has increased and competition has become more intense. Workers are more sensitive to the value they create and the reward they get in form of wages and benefits. The education sector of the Nigerian economy is not left out in the race for better rewards by making use of their union to agitate for better pay and incentives.
Employees through their unions now argue that if they had put in so much effort to help the organization to create value, it is only fair that they be given a fair bite of the cake. Consequently, there are often more frequent demands for pay increases from workers in all the sectors of the economy. Reward management is no doubt one of the most problematic and significant aspects of human resources management. Consequently, the cardinal objectives of reward management is to put forward reward structures as well as implement these reward processes in a manner that would enhance both individual and organizational effectiveness. In this regard, some of the following consideration may become quite imperative; rewarding positive work behavior while sanctioning undesirable work behavior, ensuring equity and fairness.
This study is therefore aimed at evaluating the effective management of reward system as catalyst for achieving positive performance attitudes at the primary school level. Reward is the centerpiece and manifestation of an exchange relationship between the employees and employers. In situation of high competition in the business environment, the attainment of high organizational productivity must recognize the need to inspire and motivate the employees via the design, establishment and implementation of a robust reward system that calls out the best in the employees in terms of their performance, commitment, dedication and loyalty. The process of effectively managing any organizations reward systems is undoubtedly one of the most complex and problematic issues in human resources management. Thus, this study was embarked upon to determine how reward system impacts on job performance with special reference to primary school level.
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Motivation as defined by the Word Web is the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action towards a desired goal; the reason for the action; that which gives purpose and direction to behavior.In the olden days, it was assumed that a good and successful Manager is the one who stood over his workers and give order on them to obey. But a Manager who thinks and decides for his men not only what to do but how it should be done more especially in the working environment might not succeed. This is effect would enhance how productivity approach might have worked in past when organization were in small scale and the relationships were more personal than they are today. Therefore, to get people to work effectively and efficiently, in this changed situation, a total different approach is needed.
That is to say, people have to be organized in order to achieve the set objectives and to be able to do this, a Manager must understand the motive of workers and thereby motivate them accordingly. This type of approach is an aspect of modern management functions of leading which is concerned with encouraging workers to put in their best towards the attainment oforganizational goals and objectives. According to Donnelly Gibson and Ivancevich (1984) “Motivation is defined as the force within an individual that shows or initiates direct behavioral pattern. On the other hand, it can be seen as a state of being induced by doing certain things (works) which is a tool often applied to an employee/workers or staff in an organizationin order to make them perform efficiently towards the achievement of the organizational goals and objectives.
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
It will be out of place to say that the success and failure of any organisation depends on the effective mobilization of the effort of the entire workers that make up the organisation. As such in this regard adequate attention must be paid towards motivation in today’s complex society. Lack of motivation of workers/staff within an organisation causes numerous setbacks in an organisation. Failure to motivate workers leads to employees rendering low services, which can lead an organisation into total bankruptcy.
Another different social science finding by A. K. Ubeku, have revealed that employers can only give their best when their various needs are satisfied primarily. Based on the above, it would be of vital importance to educational sector to provide factors of motivation that will improve or enhance the living condition of its workforce and invariably will provide challenges to the workers/staff of the organisation.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
1. The aim and objective of this study is to identify the different types of motivation and their effectiveness on workers/staff in primary school and other public/privateorganisations.
2. To know whether motivation to an employee is of necessity in order to achieve maximum productivity inorganisations.
3. To enquire about things related to employee efficiency, satisfaction, productivity, the motivation they received and general working environment of the employee work.
4. To examine the different types of motivational tools used for individual workers of Nigerian Agricultural, Cooperative and Rural Development Bank Ltd.
5. Also to find out how the Bank meets the demands of the workforce in respect to individual needs.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
There is an old saying you can take a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drink; it will drink only if it’s thirsty – so with people. They will do what they want to do or otherwise motivated to do. “Whether it is to excel on the workshop floor or in the ‘ivory tower’ they must be motivated or driven to it, either by themselves or through external stimulus”. Based on the above statement the researcher has considered the consequence of motivation by writing the topic effective management of reward system as catalyst for achieving positive performance attitudes at the primary school level. This project is out to assist the Bank and other organisations to find out the various types of motivational factors that they can use to enhance the performance of their workforce.
Organizational goals and objectives in the most effective and efficient manner. This in no small measure will serve as a challenge to other organisations to emulate and generally improve the performance of employees.
Ho: -That positive motivation in terms of monetary rewardsi.e. increased salary, bonus and promotion etc. have a direct correlation with employee’s performance.
H1:- The positive motivation in terms of monetary rewards may not induce the desired enthusiasm on art of the employee to put in the best.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This project is meant to cover certain problems confronting the primary school employees. The research intends to cover some of the problems that is happening and that may likely happen in the near future by which workers could be motivated for greater productivity. In the course of time the researcher try as much as to limit these problems or alternatively eliminate themcompletely.Though no work of any type can completely succeed without research limitation. During the survey general discussions were held with friends, this discussion worked satisfactory and this gave me ample of opportunity to discuss the research work widely and learn the grievances of the workers/staff particularly their general feeling and opinions that the organisation needs to address the problem of employee’s motivation seriously.
These techniques of approaching the workers as mentioned earlier, quite a number of problems were being encountered. Only seventy (70%) percent of the workers/staff responded positively towards the interview administered. From this fact: Iam conscious of the limiting extent of the reliability of life data from the reason stated earlier.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms are defined in order to provide an understanding of how they will be used in this study. The definitions of other key concepts are presented in the relevant chapters. Primary school motivation study will use the most widely accepted operational definition in the school.
1. SCHOOL EFFECT: – School effects will be defined as the unique effect of schools on individual students after adjusting for the intake characteristics of the school. There is an effect associated with attendance at a particular school. This effect is also technically known as a residual or value added.
2. STUDENT:- The term student will refer to a learner in a senior secondary school. It will be used interchangeably with pupil. A learner’s achievement will be the Botswana General Certificate of Secondary Education attainment in core curriculum subjects and overall BGCSE attainment in all the subjects.
3. RAW RESULTS OR CREDIT PASSES:-These are examination results that are aggregated at the school level, such as the percentage of students getting five grade A*-C (credits). These do not take into account students background characteristics and prior attainment. These are the results that are published by the Botswana Examination Council.
4. LEAGUE TABLES: – The ranking of schools into position using the percentage of students who have obtained five or more credit passes. The schools are then ranked from the top to the bottom with the highest credit passes at the top of the table and the lowest at the bottom. The league table and raw results will be used interchangeably.
5. GOVERNMENT: Is an agency or machinery through which the will of the state is controlled, formulated and realized.
6. LOCAL GOVERNMENT: Defined as a political authority which is purposely created by the state government under law a law by which local communities within a definite area of an organized to manage their own affairs within the limit of the law under which the authority is created.
7. ADMINISTRATION: This can be defined as the act of planning, directing, controlling, coordinating, reporting and budgeting both human, material, or financial resources of an organization in order to achieve the aims and the objectives for which such organization is being set up.
8. ORGANIZATION: Is a reformed coordination of activities of numbers of people for the achievement of some common explicit purpose or goals which is normally due through division of labour and function on a hierarchical authority and responsibility.
9. MOTIVATION: Is a general term applying to the entire class of derives, desire, needs wishes and similar force.
10. NEEDS: This refers, to a state or condition of want which is established either through deprivation or through noxious stimulation.
11. MOTIVER:Sometimes referred to as drive, which is a consequences of needs.
12. PRODUCTIVITY: This is the relationship between the output generated by a production service system and the input provided to create this output. This means that productivity is a measurable relationship between output and all employed production factors.
13. LABOUR: This refers to human energy which is expended on work. Such energy may be physical as in routine work that may not require the exertion of any cerebral mental activities.