This local beer is brewed from a cereal grain called millet, and it is brewed with bitter leaf extract acting as hop substitute to see if it can increase the shelf–life of this beer. The production process include malting, mashing, fermentation, and maturation. The microorganisms associated with fermentation include Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and Saccharomyces Charelienia. These yeast hasten fermentation by converting the sugar in the beer to alcohol. Kunu is an indigenous alcoholic beverages that is traditionally brewed without hops, and because of this it has a short shelf life as compared with that brewed with the tropical hops. There is a significant [P≥ 0.05] difference in chemical properties of millet with hops and without hops. Millet with hops is the best with alcoholic content of 0.325 ± 0.004, total acidity of 0.645 ± 0.011(% lactic acid), fixed acidity of 0.041± 0.002, specific gravity of 1.199±0.015 and pH of 4.03± 0.02. But without hops we have an alcoholic content of 0.316± 0.005, total acidity(lactic acid) of 0.427± 0.002, fixed acidity of 0.034± 0.005, specific gravity of 1.049± 0.007, and pH of 3.32±0.02. From the result the beer without hops is the lowest in acceptance of chemical properties so it is advisable that the local millet beer be brewed with the tropical hops (Vernonia Amygdalina).



Beer, alcoholic brewery made from a Cereal grains known as barley and Millet. A process called Fermentation in which Microscopic fungi known as yeast is used to consume sugars in the grains to make Beers, converting them to alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. This chemical process typically produce beers with an adequate level of alcohol content of about 2-6%. Over an aggregate of 70 types of beer are available in the modern world’s todays. Each style of beer derives its unique characteristics and differences in its brewing process.Four basic ingredients are used in brewing, which includes; grains, hops, [bitter leaves as a hop’s substitute]Yeast and water, Grains like Millet contain the natural sugars required for fermentation. It also provides beer with flavour, colour, body and texture. Hops are small, green, cone-shaped flowers from the hop plant, a vine related to the nettle plant over 50 varieties of hops are grown throughout the world, mostly in Europe, Australia and North America.But the hops we want to used is bitter leaf acting as hop’s substitute. It is mostly grown here in Africa.Hops provides the Beer with spicy, bitter flavour and contribute natural substances that prevent bacteria from spoiling beer. Two species of Yeast ;Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces uvarum and baker’s yeast.Each yeast species is used in a slightly different method of fermentation and produces a distinct type of beer. Throughout history, where ever Cereal grains were grown, Humans made beer with beverage for them. They used Barley in Egypt, Millet and Sorghum in other parts of Africa, beer brewing is a major industrial revolution world wide. In 2002, In the United States, 1800 brewers,produced almost 175 millions barrels of beer.Beer is deeply interlined in the fabric of Society, from the Economic to the intangible locally owned breweries deliver social values better than global companies. Since early times beer which is the products of brewing processes has played an important role in our society, It bring people together in local pubs and breweries generating Camaraderie within Communities. As technology has progress brewing techniques have been developed and refined. As a result, we are currently consuming the finest beers ever produced. This is due to our increased knowledge in the fields of Biotechnology, Microbiology, and Chemistry.


The aim of study is primarily to have a capture of the effect use of a tropical hop named bitter leaf(Vernonia Amygdalina) extract as a means of extending the shelf–life of a locally millet beer.In the course of achieving this goal, the ingredients used in brewing industries are taken into consideration together with various analysis carried on beer samples.Finally, beer should be of an adequate composition and texture in order to satisfy consumers need and sensitivity on the disadvantages of beer abuse to the health and body.


Alais, C. & Linden, G.(1999). Food Biochemistry.Great Britain:Aspen Publisher Inc.

Amerine, M. A., Berg, H. W., & Cruess, W. V. (1972). The Technology of Wine Making. USA Westport: Avi Publications.

Anonymous.(1989). Approved methods of the American Association of Cereals. USA.

Arnold, P. (2000).Origin and History of Beer and Brewing. From Prehistoric Times to the Beginning of Brewing Science and Technology.

Asiedu, J. J. (1989). Processing Tropical Crops. Nigeria: Macmillan Education Ltd.

Ault, R. G., & Newton, R. (1971). Modern Brewing Technology. London, UK: Finlay Macmillan Press.

Bantu Beer Unit. (1971). Course delivered at the Pretoria College for Advanced Technical Education. South Africa: Pretoria.

Barth, I. (1967). Economic Spheres in Darfur: Themes in Economic Anthropology (R. Ford ed). pp.149-189. London:Tavistock.

Bryant, A. T. (1948). The Zulu people as they were before the white man came. New York: Negro Universities Press.

Carr, J .G .(1969). Biological Principles in fermentation. London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.

Cavalieri, D., Mcgovern, P. E., Harti. D. L., Mortimer, R. & Poisineli, M. (2003). Evidence for S.Cerevisiae fermentation in ancient wine. Journal of Molecular Evolution. pp. 226-232. Germany:Berlin.