THE EFFECTS OF COMMUNICATION ON MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYER’S RELATIONSHIP IN AN ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF ANAMMCO LTD, ENUGU)
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In order to function adjust change external environment and attain their goals and objectives, modern management requires the free and orderly flow of information and that in turn requires some forms of communication” Bason (1986).
Communication: Is the link wire in every organization, both profit and non profit making, private sectors or public sectors driven as a result, no organization carried its activities by sign but to employees, effective communication is a sine qua non for attainment of organizational goals and objectives, though, it had remained one of the problem facing modern management in the public sector. It is a vital tool for management because without it, all attempts to carry out the activities of an organization (public sector) must fail without communication between management employees, nothing can happen, no instruction can be given, no orders taken, no contact made with superior or subordinate and no information provide or received.
It is only through effect communication can any activity ot planned, organized, controlled and co-ordinated. The only exception in this case is the individual working entirely on his own without any contract at all with any other person. Furthermore, communication carried out must be understandable to both parties. Therefore, it can be posited that communication is the transmission and reception of messages or idea from one party to the other in such system that it is easily understandable. Restriction or ineffective communication in the public sector makes it impossibility for members within the organization to get enough information which is required of the performance of stipulated task. It is said to be effective when there is a successful transfer of information and understanding from sender to a receiver. No organization can function without a detailed and effective made of communication. As the public sector become complicated, so is the need for adequate communication entrenchment.
Nwana (2001), communication is the transfer of ideas forms the sender to the receiver. It could then be said without fear of constriction that communication is the cohesive bond between individuals in organization and a proper study and understanding of it will go a long way to improve the management and employee relationships and also towards the achievement of its objective. It should be taken as a fact that one individual cannot achieve organizational goals, there must be interactive so far the purpose of putting effort by the individuals in the organizational goal accomplishment, communication is necessary in all level of workings in the public sector. Communication is a process by which people attempt to share meaning via the transmission of symbolic messages, stones (1995). Such communication organizes and unified an activities of an organization existence is based on communication. Some managers do spend precious time giving ambiguous and out of place instructions to subordinates which culminates into poorly defined policy, poor policy formulation and implementation which takes the further away from the set goals. Therefore, we can now rise ot say that effect communication is a necessity because it helps in the co-ordination of human, physical and non physical resources of organized activity will go with the wind and anarchy will wear a crown by that statement, I beg to explain that when there are no co-ordinated effect communication procession in an organization, there would not be conflicting orders and authorization being given to subordinates by different supervisors. A sectional head may give order only to find out latterly that a counter order had already been given by the managing director bye passing him completely. However, communication pervades the management functions of planning, organizing, co-coordinating and controlling.
This is because according to the liberal or realistic a school of thoughts scholars, like Donnelly, Gibson and Invannrierich (1984), they posited that manages rarely work with things. Management should therefore realize that there is need for employees not only being well informed concerning the success of the organizations but also being well informed about issues which affects them less directly on the job. Because of this, a constant communication network for subordinates to understand organizational need and aspirations and for management ot understand the subordinates need and goals. If this is non existent, the group effort that is necessary for organization effectiveness and efficiency is severally hampered.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Public sectors communication without doubt applies to all level of management in every public sector organization. Due to the fact, it has been signed out for special emphasis in recent years.
A great deal has been said and written about the role of communication in management / employee relation and most often, it has been treated as a problem.
Some writers see it had human or psychological problem or a problem in language a social skills communication. Ineffective communication had most often been explained as the root of the problem encountered in day-to-day human activities the problem of ineffective communication has been given as explanation for most industrial and organizational conflicts. There is knowing gain saying that there are a number of problems inhibiting effective communication in public enterprises in Nigeria.
The researcher intends to locate these problems and by asking this questions via why do this malaise exist in the first instance? Is it because of communication over loading, value judgments, selected perception, stereotyping, semantics, time pressure, superior power frame of reference and what not? What is the extent to which this has affected the overall operations of public sectors performance? Of all these require a serious investigation and it is my aim in this study based on my findings to proffer solutions to these problems.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Often, communication between management and employed has lost the effectiveness or rather is not effective at all. Abnitio this problem should be laid at the door step of several barriers are unknown and the purpose of this study is to locate those barriers. Those barriers are unknown and the purpose of this study is to locate those barriers.
To know the effect of communication in public sector enterprises existence, whether there is any relationship between communication, organization performance and productivity in the manufacturing industry using ANAMMCO as a case study.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will enable one to leave an insight on the importance of effective communication in public sector organization. It would reflect why management in every organization be it public or private should spend much time to see that information is duly communicated to the subordinated in clear forms. It would definitely go a long way to reason out why communication would be regarded as the link wire (the umbilical cord connecting all levelas of the organization). The study would equally add to existing knowledge on communication. It would especially help those who interact in organization mediation with unions acquire more skills for effective communication.
1.5 SCOPE LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
A lost of constraints are encountered in the attempt to assemble the necessary data for the execution of the project. Some of such problems include that of time and attitudes of respondents.
The limited time available to the researcher due to the subject of irregularities in school calendar, there is tendency for some organization to withhold information for fear of competition, research of this nature, the financial power available to the researcher is limited and as a result, the study would be limited to a small portion of the survey industry.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION
- What are the factors affecting communication effectiveness in ANAMCO?
- Is there any positive relationship between communication and organizational performance or productivity with regard to ANAMCO?
- To what extent does communication effect attainment of organizational goals and objectives visa-a-vis ANAMCO?
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Effect communication: Is said to be when you cause something to come into use, for the successful transfer of information, which must have meaning and understanding form sender to receivers.
Organization / enterprise: Is a collection or association individuals with common objectives working cooperatively under leadership and authority. Public sector is an enterprise where both the government and private individuals or only the government own shares. The form is later lends towards co-operative orientation organizational performance means the way which it achieves its result that society expects objectives simply means goals which must be achieved.
2.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION IN THE STUDY AREA SUBJECT MATTER
Information theory is a basically scientifically approach to the study of communication. Its founding fathers are Nobert, Weines and Claude Shannon.
It is involves with the probability theory of mathematical and is primarily concerned with the transmission aspects of communication process specifically the transmission concept of encodes (sender) and decodes (receiving) in terms of both their functional roles and contribution, the advancement of a given level of performance are the distinguishing characteristics of information theory.
The aim of information theory is to encode messages by taking advantage of he statistical nature and to use electrical signals ot transmit messages over a given channel with a minimum error.
Entropy further illustrate the information theory approach, entropy is a statistical law of thermodynamics. It states that there is degree of randomness or error in any system. Information theorist recognizes entropy in their analysis of communication system. They try ot measure and control noise entropy that may arise form distractions, destructions or electrical static occurring when a message is transmitted over a communication system, hence, Weenies and Shannon were the first to emphasize communication from mathematical perspective. Form this, they developed the term cybernetics. Cybernetics is use to a very broad sense to incorporate, the general science of control over complex system information and communication. Weenies coined the cybernetics to over information theory as the study of messages as a means of controlling machinery and society, the development of computing machines and automata.
Since information theory and cybernetics were introduced, much as taken place. According to gall aster in the past twenty years, information systems have been brought to a point where it is being applied in practical communication system.
2.2 THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF COMMUNICATION INFORMATION
Public sector communication may be defined as the process by which people in public sector enterprises attempt to share meanings through symbolic messages.
Ukwu (1984), the process of communication is important to administration and because it enables them to carry on the management functions of planning, organizing, co-coordinating, and controlling. The activities of communication particularly oral communication take up a large portion of an administer or manager time.
Communication is the act of impacting and making oneself understood by other to interpret an idea in the manner intended by the speaker or writer. Flippo (1980), communication in public organization are interpersonal and through the channel and structural relationship deigned by management.
Hubent (1976), public enterprises communication is the vehicle by which information relevant to decision making is transferred within and between organizations, Ernest (1981).
Communication is he process of creating and shaping meaning, the key to communication is the meaning people give to words, not the word itself, O’Connel (1979), apple by (1981) stated that communication is the means whereby people in an organization exchange information regarding the operations of the enterprises. He further stated that it is the change of ideas, facts and emotion by two or more people by the use of words, letters and symbols, the language of the system model that communication is a linking process that links various parts of the subsystems into a useful goal erected purposeful activity of organizations. It is an administrative and management tool that has to be used in certain ways depending on the outcome designed and like another tool, its design and use must be considered carefully, building (1957).
In their contribution to business communication Vendamen and Holterman (1968) said that by communication is business, we mean the flow of material information, perception and understanding between various parts and member of an organization and the methods, means and media of communication (communicational technology), all the channel, network and system of communication (organizational structure), all person to person interchanging (interpersonal communication). It includes all aspects of communication up, down, lateral speaking, writing, listening, reading, methods, media, mode, and channel, network flow, interpersonal, intra-organizational and inter-organizational.
2.3 INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION THEORY
The interpersonal approach is the extreme opposite of information theory interpersonal communication is basically behavioural oriented. The major emphasis on interpersonal approach is the transfer of information from one person to the others. The communication between friends, members of a small work group involves interpersonal relationship, such communication can be official, unofficial, formal or informal. It can take place by word of mouth, memoranda, through meeting or over the telephone. Interpersonal theorist look at communication as a basic method of affecting behavior change and that incorporate the psychological process such as perception learning and motivation on one hand and language on the other.
Hence, communication is seen as the flow of material information, perception and understanding between the various parts and members of an organization on all method means and media of communication (communication technology), all channel networks and system of communication (organizational structure) all the person to person interchange (interpersonal communication) there must be both sender and receiver in order for interpersonal communication to take place. The sender is important as the receiver who gives feed back to the sender, feed back permits expensive action on the past of one or more persons and the conscious and interpersonal communication plays central role in the organizational communicate process and is directly relevance to he study of organizational behaviour.
2.4 PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION
There are formal and informal relationship that has been established within the framework of the organizing function provide a means of disseminating such information to organizational members for communication to be effective, certain principles need to be systematically followed as these;
- Principle of efficiency of communication: communication is necessary for planning, organizing, directing and controlling all the organizations operational activities as a result, communication should be as effect as possible.
- Principles of integrity in communication: The purpose of communication is to provide a time and accurate understanding of messages in order to coordinate effectively the firm’s activities, the greater the integrity and consistency of written, oral and nonverbal messages as well the moral behavior of the sender, the greater the acceptance of the message by the receiver.
- Principle of clarity in communication: This is the responsibility of the sender to express messages in an understandable manner. The sender should know that modern business does not require verbosity in communication in consideration of the composition of the workforce, and as such be clear precise and concise when sending message as attention is paid especially to the receiver. If this principle as adhered to, it would in the small measure help to overcome barriers to effective communication such as badly expressed messages and fault translation.
- Principle of effect listening: In this aspect, communication cannot take place unless the message received and understand.
5. Principles of information communication: The formal communication channels may be slow as a result, the most effective communication may be specially the transmission concept of encodes (sending) and decode (receiving) in terms of both their functional roles and contribution the advancement of a given level of performance are the distribution characteristics of information theory by taking advantage of the statistical nature and to use electrical signals to transmit messages over a given channel with a minimum error. Cybernetics is used in a very broad sense to incorporated the general science of control over complex systems information and communication.
Theory as the study of messages as a means of controlling machinery and society, the development of computing machines and automata since information theory and cybernetics were introduced, much as taken place.
According to Gallaster in the past twenty years, information system have been brought to a point where it is being applied in practical communication system achieve when management utilizes the informal channel to supplement formal communication channels.
2.5 COMMUNICATION PROCESS
The communication process can be described a model with several components. These components include a sender or information source who wishes to create a desired meaning in the mind of another the receiver. The meaning is encoded into a message or set symbols and it is sent along a channel to the receiver, who decodes the message and attaches meaning to it. The receiver spends to the sender or source with feedback reply there can be noise in all part of the system.
sender or source with feedback reply there can be noise in all part of the system.
The communication process.
- Sender: A sender will be a person with information needs or desires and a purpose for communication then to one or more other people. The sender in any organization can be the director, manager, subordinates, department / branch or the organization itself. The manager in organization communicates with other managers / subordinates, client / customers and others who are both within and outside the organization.
- Messages: The encoded sent by the sender to the receiver; Stones 91983). The messages is the physical form into which the sender encodes the information, the message may be in any form that can be experienced and understood by one or more of the senses of the receiver.
- Noise: Stones (1983), said that noise is any factor that disturbs, confuses, or otherwise interferes with communication. Noise may be internal (as when a receiver is not paying attention) or external (as when message is distorted by the sounds in the environment) noise can occur at any stage of the communication process especially troublesome during encoding or decoding stage.
- Channel: A formal medium of communication between a sender and the recover Onwuchekwa (1995), the channel is the mode or means of transmission e.g on paper, telephone etc the situation of the receiver influences the choice of channel.
- Receiver: The receiver is the person whose senses perceive the sender’s messages. If the message does not reach the receiver, communication has not taken place.
Wallace and Szillagyi (1982:231) said just as the sender flitters the intended messages when he or she manipulates symbols, the receiver filters when he or she interprets (or decodes) the symbols that had been manipulated. To Koontz and Wellrich (1988:464) accurate communication can occur only when both the sender and the receiver attach the sense or at least similar meanings to the symbols that compose the message. Therefore communication is not complete unless it is understood in the mind of both sender and other receiver.
- Feedback: This is the reaction of the receiver on a sender message. Feedback passes back to the sender through the communication process. It helps to determine how effective a communication process is. Bason (1980:305) submitted that communication involves a process in which one or more person transmits messages to one or more person efforts to interpret this message often return information to the sender.
2.6 IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION
Communication is a means of influencing or motivating people. It is a medium through which understanding is reached or opinions and ideas are expressed between persons.
Ejiofor (1989) a good information system can be described as the veins, entries, and nerve centre of an organization. Good communication is necessary to coordinate human and physical resources of an enterprise into an efficient and effective working unit (Kootz et al, 1980).
It is through the exchange of information that the organization becomes ware of the governments regulations, customers needs, and the social concern of the community or if the environment of their operation. Finally, it has been observed that a positive relationship exist between good communication and productivity in the organizations. (Huse, 1982), this is because as people interact effectively with others to work and solve problems, they communicate ideas, attitude and feelings. In the process, work is performed more efficiently and problems are solved more quickly.
2.7 BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Barriers to effect communication are factors that impede, distort or cause a breakdown in the exchange of idea and feelings. Many of these man made barriers can be identified with the organization. Some of the more common barriers include:
i Language use of words with different meaning use of Jargon by the sender.
ii Use of skill in listening
iii Use of influence or authority to stop feedback
iv Negative feelings, prejudices and other barriers resulting from divergence between senders and listeners’ interests like status and position.
v Filtering that is faulty transmission of messages along the line, addition and subtraction form original message to suit one’s convenient.
- Lack of unity of command, too great a span of control and unclear levels of authority linked with inconsistent corporate objectives and policy results in poor management and leadership, in lines of communication that are too long or unclear.
vii Stereo typing: This refers as when an individual has perceived idea about other people and refused to discriminate between individual behavior and his relationship with other people, he tends to be stereotyping.
Onwuchekwe (1996) refers to this as a halo effect. Megginson, Mosley and Pacton (1992:405) stereotyping is the perception tendency to structure and the world into a predicted patter.
2.8 COMMUNICATION CHANNELS
Communication flows in various directions in organization. I can be downward, upward, horizontal or diagonal.
- Downward communication: This deal with communication from the top of organization hierarchy down to the subordinates at the lower levels. It is through this channel that policies, objectives and procedure are transmitted from superiors to subordinate for implementation.
- Upward communication: this is the system through which employees report and inform their superiors of their progress performance, managing whether messages have been properly transmitted and received, and whether the organization is performing efficiently.
- Horizontal communication: This is a crosswise type of communication involving people on the same level in the managerial hierarchy or across departments in the organization. This literal communication flow complements down wards and upward channels as it allows exchange of information by organization members on the same level. It is required to make a coordinated effort in achieving the overall organizational goal. As organization become larger, more complex and more subject to dramatic change, the horizontal requirement becomes more apparent.
- Diagonal communication: This is another type of crosswise communication. It involves information flow among persons at different levels who have no direct relationship with one another. like the lateral type of communication flow, this kind of communication is used to speed information flow, to improve understanding and to coordinate efforts for the achievement of organizational objectives (Weihrich Koontz, 1994).
2.9 FORM OF MANAGEMENT / EMPLOYEE COMMUNICATION IN PUBLIC SECTOR ORGANIZATION
In organization, information must be communicated. The channels through which these information is communicated are left to the individual concerned what he / she can effectively and efficiently. The forms of communication in organization are though verbal, non verbal and written channel.
2.10 ACHIEVING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES
It will be seen from preceding section that communication in public sector business is complex and difficult. Every manager and potential manager today needs to give extremely serious thoughts to how he can improve his efficiently as a communicator.
So far, as the language is concerned, you can study to improve your abilities as s communication in some ways. To Akinnyyemi (1981) effect communication is the translation of ideas and directive or commend or guide into oral or written words or action on the part of the communicator in such a manner that will transfer the ideas from the mind of the communicator to the mind of the receiver with the aim that the receiver will react in the manner envisaged by the communicator. In other words, here must be oneness of thought between the communicator and the receiver for communication to be effective. In order to ensure that the objective policies strategies PF the enterprises are carried out as planned, there must be effective flow of communication between management and subordinates.
2.11 FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
Raymond (1977:336) has described four factors that influence the effectiveness of organizational communication, these are such as;
i The formal channel of communication
ii The organization authority structure
iii Job specialization
iv Information ownership
Formal channel of communication: Is a means of communication that is endorsed and probably controlled by managers. Example includes newsletters, regular memos reports and staff meeting.
Formal channel of communication influence communication effectiveness in tow ways, ever widening distance as organization develop and grow and second, the formal channels of communication is a mechanism that can affect the free flow of information between organizational levels.
But then, effect communication is usually for more difficult to achieve in a large retail organization or industry with widely dispersed branches than in departmental store and it can still inhibit the free flow of information between organizational levels, example are as the manager avoids being bogged down by irrelevant information the higher level manager may in his process miss important information.
The organization authority structure: The organization of authority structure had a similar influence on communication effectiveness, status and power differences in the organizations help determine who will communicate effectively and accuracy of the communication will also be affected by authority differences. For example, conservation between a company president CEO and a chemical worker may well be characterized by some what strained politeness and formally.
Job specialization: Usually facilities communications with differentiated group members of the same work group are likely to share the same jargon time horizons goals tasks and personal styles. Communication between highly differentiated groups however is likely to be inhibited.
2.12 ESSENTIALS OF COMMUNICATION
There are five fundamental rules of communication which can help get across information and communication more successful in management / employee communication.
They include and are known as the
- Concreteness forcefulness
- Correctness (Koontz and Weihrich, 1988)
Clarity: This means that words should be chosen carefully not to include words that are capable of having different meaning.
Completeness: This means that all necessary facts have to be include. The messages may not produce any or the designed effect or result if it is incomplete or inaccurate, an incomplete message sometimes dangerous then no information at all as it had the tendency to mislead the receivers.
Consciousness: Implies that no communication should be overloaded with understanding of the briefness allows for better understanding of the message.
Concreteness: Writing a departmental memo is hardly the time to bent around the bush, weak meaningless language is mot often used when the communication does not know what to communicate.
Correctness: Means to gather all the necessary facts before sending the information, if the information is false, it creates false impression on the receivers and probably weakness the public image of the organization
2.1.3 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
Communication is indispensable for effective management in all organization, all levels of managements and workers in the organization require communication. this is because it is linked closely to the management function of planning, organizing, leading and evaluating and employee functions of collective efforts towards the achievement of organizational objective. in fact, without communication, no co-ordinated interaction can occur. the quality of managerial decision depends largely on the part of quality of information supplied, communication has not take place.
We communicate in different ways, verbal, written, (non verbal) which paralanguage, object language etc, the elements of communication include sender, encoding the message itself, the medium, decoding the receiver and feedback, all these must be in harmony IPSO facto if communication is to achieve its purpose. The crucial factors determining the way organization send and receive message depend on its organization structure, communication on flows are upwards, document, diagonal and horizontal.
Informal as well as channels are important to organizational communication especially between manager / employees, numerous barriers exist that contributed to communication breakdown, these barriers include frames of reference, perception, value judgment, source credibility, semantic problem, filtering and communication overload, improving communication in organizations involve feedback regulating information flow, empathy, simplicity and repetition.