The uses of instructional materials in the processes of effective teaching and learning cannot be over emphasized. According to Ibe (1998) an instructional materials is an object or means of communication process that stores and distributes human experience or knowledge. Therefore the totality of the information carrying devices. Instructional materials in teaching generally make the teaching process easier.

However in order to appreciate the importance of instructional materials in teaching – learning process, Rhert Heinich et. al (2001) consider the reasons for using them.

1. Gain and hold the attention of his learner

2. Provide visual aspects to a process or techniques

3. Focus attention on highlight of key points

4. Great impact

5. Facilitate the understanding of abstract explanation

6. Provide a common framework of experience to a large number of learners.

7. Stimulate reality

The Chinese proverb conclude that;

I hear – I forget

I see  –  I remember

I do   –  I understand

Geography is not defined by the uniqueness of its content rather hold gain their distinction by the way in which they organize and analyze the data they collect regarding particular aspects of the human experience. Geography organizes its information within the context of the spatial environment. Today the focus of geography inquiry is generally conceded to be on spatial interactions that is the geography seeks to understand the significance of human activity within a spatial framework. An average geographer present their data primarily though the construction of maps.

The scope of geography as coined out in Greek words imply the description of the earth i.e. Geo-describe, Graphy-earth. The descriptive exercise spanned from physical features i.e. valley, mountains, climate etc to socio-cultural features i.e. settlement, agriculture, population transportation etc.

However observation over the years revealed the lack of these instructional materials in the teaching and learning of geography in our secondary schools. Most schools offering geography at the senior level have resulted into abstract teaching and learning process. Textbooks are often used with diagram and sketches. Exposure to real object and field trips to place to geography importance are I have gone into extinction. The impact of this is diminishing importance of geography as an environmental science and poor performance of students in the subject.

It is against this background that it becomes necessary to investigate the extent, of the availability, adequacy and utilization of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of geography is some selected senior secondary schools in Ewekoro Local Government Area of Ogun State.


The persistence problem of non-availability or inadequacy of most instructional materials in the teaching and learning of geography has been of great concern to teacher and learners of geography. Coupled with this problem is non utilization of the available resources in the school by geography teachers teaching. This may not be unconnected with the fact that most the these teachers have insufficient knowledge on geography and may not be able to handle these instructional materials. Some of these students in the senior secondary schools easily forget what they were taught while they were schooling on graduation. Even those yet to leave show lukewarm attitude towards the subject.

The problem of this study, wishes to address is what is the extent of availability, adequacy and utilization of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of geography in the senior secondary schools.


The purpose of this study are to:

1. Determine the availability of instructional materials in teaching

2. Find out the adequacy or otherwise of instructional materials in geography

3. Examine the extent of utilization of the available instructional materials in teaching and learning of geography.

4. Suggest possible solutions to the inadequate instructional materials in the teaching.


The following research questions will guide the study.

1. What is the extent of availability of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of geography in the secondary schools in Ogun State?

2. To what extent are the available instructional materials in geography adequate?

3. To what extent are the available instructional materials in the teaching of geography utilized?

4. How does the inadequate instructional resources affect students’ performance.


The focus of this study is to determined the extent of availability of instructional materials in geography, adequacy and the extent of utilization of instructional materials by geography teachers in the senior secondary schools. Five secondary schools were selected in Ewekoro Local Government as coverage area.

The five secondary schools are:

1. Community Comprehensive High School, Owowo

2. United Secondary School, Wasinmi

3. Adeoye Lambo High School, Obada-Oko

4. Papalanto High School, Papa.

5. Itori Comprehensive High School, Itori.

The questionnaire instrument for gathering data shall be used. The questionnaire shall be administered on twenty geography students in each of these schools and ten teachers across the local government area.


1. Since the questionnaire is frame in English Language, unguided administration my pose serious limitation on the information collected from the students.

2. The financial constraints may also affect the administration, sorting and organization of information gathered.

3. The converge area is limited to only one local government while the population is base on students of public secondary schools. So the findings may not be generalized.


1. The findings of this study when concluded shall be of immense benefit to the students, teachers, schools, parents as well as the entire community.

2. This study will also throw light to the importance of and indispensability of good instructional materials in the process of teaching and learning of geography in senior secondary schools.

3. The result will also enable the school authorities to procure the instructional aids in areas where they are lacking.

4. The result of the findings will also be of utmost advantage to geography teachers in areas of updating that knowledge on how to handle the available instructional aids in school.

5. The result of the finding will stimulate and arouse the interest of the students in geography.


To aid proper understanding, some of the term used in this research work are hereby define as follows:

1. EFFECTIVE TEACHING: This is the ability to achieve the objectives of the teaching. i.e. the behavioural objective.

2. EFFECTIVE LEARNING: It involves a situation of a permanent change in the behaviour of the learners.

3. INADEQUATE: It imply a situation of insufficiency in quantity and not absolute lack.

4. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: These are the instruments (human or non human) designed to facilitate easy learning and teaching in school.

5. EFFECT: This is the learning outcome consequence upon an observed situation.