An Empirical Analysis of the Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction Among Academic Professionals in Tertiary Institution in Nigeria, with Focus on the University of Calabar
1.1 Background to the Study
Today, there appears to be a widespread dissatisfaction in the teaching profession as a whole and most especially in higher institutions of learning. This phenomenon has triggered concerns of various parties, which have often resulted to industrial action among academic professionals hence researchers have assiduously conducted researches to gain a better understanding of the issues related to this. A range of findings derived from quantitative as well as qualitative studies have been reported in the literature regarding sources of job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction is defined as the level of contentment an individual has in his or her job, this gives an indication that there are some things an employee founds very interesting in the job that keeps him/her dedicated. Job satisfaction also means the multidimensional psychological responses an employee gives to his/her job. Job satisfaction measures vary in the extent to which they measure feelings about the job or cognitions about the job.
Employee satisfaction has always been an important issue for most employees around the world. There are numerous definitions given to the term job satisfaction. Oshagbemi (2000) defines job satisfaction as an emotional response that occurs as a result of the interaction between the employee’s values concerning his/her job and the profits he/she gained from his/her job.
Robbins (2000) explains the concept of job satisfaction as the overall feelings towards or attitudes about the job employees perform. On the other hand, Spector (1997) claims that job satisfaction encompasses the reflection of the extent to which employees like their job and its components. On the whole, it can be said that job satisfaction is an area which has been widely researched (Highhouse and Becker, 1993) and studies has shown that job satisfaction is linked mainly to two factors: situational (extrinsic) and personal (intrinsic) factors (Qingwen, 2006). According to Heller, Schmidt and Hayes (2012)., situational factors include pay, opportunities for promotion, working conditions and job characteristics such as task identity, task significance, skill variety, autonomy and feedback while personal factors include personality disposition, traits, self esteem, motivation and emotion (Dorman and Zapf, 2001).
Job satisfaction is crucial as it is related to job performance and turnover and in the 21st century, this has become a serious problem in the management of educational institutions (Anil, 2013).This is because, research has proven that employees with high job satisfaction exhibit high energy, pleasurable engagement and enthusiasm and employees with dissatisfaction show distress, unpleasant engagement and nervousness (Heller 2002).
This research project is therefore designed to carry out an empirical analyses of the factors affecting job satisfaction among academic professionals in tertiary institution in Nigeria, with focus on the University of Calabar.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Employee are the most costly asset of any organization. This is because no organization can succeed without well trained and motivated staff. Especially in academic institutions were activities has to do with the cultivation of future generation, hence the turnover of academics has more serious implications on the subject compared to other organizations. This is because the consequences that emerge as a result of a high turnover among academicians would not only have negative implications on the business part of the academic institutions but also have serious repercussions on the generations being educated in these institutions. Thus, not only will the teaching occupation suffer from disrepute but the attainment of objectives of education will also be adversely affected (Evans and Olumide, 2010) This trend which is causing much concern has cultivated the interest of the researchers to investigate the motivational factors that lead to job satisfactions among academicians with the purpose of identifying the differences in the levels of job satisfaction among genders and generation.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The main objective of this study is, to analyze the factors affecting job satisfaction among academic professionals of tertiary institutions in University of Calabar. Other specific objectives include:
(i) To determine how financial incentives affect job satisfaction among academic professional of tertiary institutions in University of Calabar.
(ii) To examine the extent to which staff promotion affect job satisfaction among academic professional of tertiary institutions in University of Calabar.
(iii) To access the effect of working condition on job satisfaction among academic professional of tertiary institutions in University of Calabar.
(iv) To evaluate the effect of motivational policies on job satisfaction among academic professional of tertiary institutions in University of Calabar.
1.4 Research questions
(i) To what extent does financial incentives affect job satisfaction among academic professional of tertiary institutions in University of Calabar?
(ii) How does staff promotion affect job satisfaction among academic professional of tertiary institutions in University of Calabar?
(iii) To what extent does working condition affect job satisfaction among academic professional of tertiary institutions in University of Calabar?
(iv) To what extent does motivational policies affect job satisfaction among academic professional of tertiary institutions in University of Calabar?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
(i) There is no significant relationship between financial incentives and job satisfaction among academic professional of tertiary institutions in University of Calabar
(ii) There is no significant relationship between staff promotion and job satisfaction among academic professional of tertiary institutions in University of Calabar
(iii) There is no significant relationship between working condition and job satisfaction among academic professional of tertiary institutions in University of Calabar
(iv) There is no significant relationship between motivational policies and job satisfaction among academic professional of tertiary institutions in University of Calabar
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study focuses on analyzing the factors affecting job satisfaction among academic professionals of tertiary institutions in University of Calabar. This institution is chosen because of ease in accessibility and also being an institution with diverse academic goals. The limitation of the study is due to insufficient financial resources, time and materials that have hindered the researcher from accessing relevant information pertaining to the subject matter and also the attitude of respondents during field survey.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be very significant to organizations, employers and employees, students, managers and future researchers.
Organizations can take advantage of information provided in this study to update their policies in terms of motivation, promotions, incentives and working condition to enable them enhance the level of job satisfaction among their employees as this will in turn help them achieve their goals.
2. Academic institutions:
This study will be of value to all academic institution especially tertiary institutions (public and private), findings of this study will help this institutions identify and address some of the sensitive issues such as financial incentives, work condition, promotion and motivational policies affecting job satisfaction among academic staff.
3. Employers and Employees:
They can use it to develop and establish firm ideas that will bring about further development in the way and manner employers and employees can achieve job satisfaction.
This will serve as a guide and reference material to students who intend to carry out a research, read or write more on this topic.
5. Future Researchers:
Those who will carry out research in future will find it useful in meeting their goals.
1.7 Historical Background Of The Study Area: University of Calabar
The University of Calabar also known as UNICAL is a university situated in Calabar, Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria. It is one of Nigerian’s second generation universities. The University of Calabar was a campus of the University of Nigeria until 1975. The architecture was designed by John Elliott. It was established by decree to fulfill this traditional mandate, its motto “Knowledge for Service”.
The Vice Chancellor is Prof James Epoke. The Registrar is Dr. Mrs. Julia Omang. The University of Calabar was one of the foremost Nigerian Universities to automate students’ registration processes through the College Portal, and has taken a step further to automate her alumni relations which includes an online transcript request and processing first of its kind in the country.
The male students are known as Malabites, while the female students are Malabresses. The male hostel is called Malabor. This was a result of challenges faced by the students at a time which coincided with the suffering experienced at Malabor by Nigerian deportees from Equatorial Guinea at that time whose capital is Malabor (http://alumni.unical.edu.ng).
The university has the following faculties:College of Medical Sciences.faculties of Management Sciences, Education,Social Sciences, Arts, Law, Science, Agriculture, Institutes of Public Policy and Administration, Oceanography,Graduate School University of Calabar Consultancy Services.
Objectives for Establishment of the University of Calabar include; To encourage the advancement of knowledge of learning and to hold out to all person without distinctions of race, creed, sex or political conviction the opportunity of acquiring liberal education; To provide courses of instruction and other facilities for the pursuit of learning in all its branches, and to make those facilities available on proper terms of such persons as are equipped to benefit from them; To encourage and promote scholarship and conduct research in all fields of learning and human endeavour. To relate its activities to the social, cultural and economic needs of the people of Nigeria; and to undertake any other activities appropriate for a University of the highest standards. (http://www.myunical.net)
1.8 Definition of terms
It is simply how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.
Education beyond the secondary level, especially education at the college or university level.